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To show how the change in temperature affects the speed that an enzyme works

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Introduction

Aim: To show how the change in temperature affects the speed that an enzyme works Prediction: That the higher the temperature, the faster that the enzyme will work, until the temperature becomes too high and the enzyme starts to denature. Safety: * To wear safety goggles at all times during the experiment * To make sure that all pieces of loose clothing or hair are out of the way of fire and tied back. * To make sure that the Bunsen burner being used is always on top of a fire proof mat. Apparatus: * Test Tubes * Beaker * Heat Proof Mat * Bunsen Burner * Tripod and Gauze * Thermometer * Pipette * Clearness chart - A series of red dots that became more transparent as the number lowered. * Pepsin and a substrate Preliminary Results: Temperature (Centigrade) Clearness After: 1 Minute 2 Minutes 3 Minutes 20�C 3 2 2 30�C 5 4 3 40�C 4 3 2 These preliminary results that were taken needed to be altered for the experiment. I found that it was a lot easier to keep the Clearness a constant instead of keeping the time constant, which would make for a fairer test. ...read more.

Middle

In this case it is 3. Make sure that you check the clearness of the solution every 10 seconds ensuring a fair test. Once the solution has reached the set clearness, record the time it has taken to reach the clearness and repeat the experiment but at a higher temperature, making sure that the water is at the exact set temperature and the same amount of enzyme and substrate is added each time to ensure a fair test. The experiment will be repeated 3 times to make the results more certain and there will be results taken at 7 different temperatures taken at 10 second intervals from 24�C to 84�C. Results: Temperature (Centigrade) Colour Time taken (in seconds) 1st Run 2nd Run 3rd Run 24 3 88 65 71 34 3 62 57 60 44 3 53 49 47 54 3 22 26 23 64 3 20 17 19 74 3 15 15 16 84 3 13 13 12 The temperature in this set of results is the temperature outside the test tube, in the water bath. Temperature (Centigrade) Colour Time Taken (in seconds) 1st Run 2nd Run 24 3 49 61 34 3 45 57 44 3 39 48 54 3 30 37 64 3 24 30 74 3 15 21 84 3 11 17 The temperature in this set of results is the temperature inside the test tube. ...read more.

Conclusion

One way that this could have been improved would be by putting only the enzyme in the test tube while it was being heated and then adding the substrate. Both set of results show that as the temperature goes up the speed at which the enzyme works also goes up, until a point where it will start to denature. Instead of just measuring the temperature, the pH of the liquid could have also been measured, as the pH is another factor in the denaturing of enzymes. If the pH is too high, the enzyme will start to denature the same as with temperature; and if the pH is too low the enzyme will not work as fast, the same as with temperature. One way that the pH could have been kept constant, if it was measured, is to use universal indicator paper to measure the pH every time there was a temperature result taken. If the pH became too acidic, a small amount of alkali could be added to it to return it to normal; and if the pH became too alkali, a small amount of acid could be added to return it to normal. The optimal pH for the enzyme in this case is pH 2, which means that the solution would have to be kept quite acidic at all times. ...read more.

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