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To what extent are enzymes used today in industry, medicineand the food industry

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Introduction

Enzyme Essay To what extent are enzymes used today in industry, medicine and the food industry? Enzymes are used very frequently in all of the above places because they provide a useful means of getting the required material out of a substance without wasting either the substance or the enzyme, as they are renewable. The following shows how enzymes are used in industry to extract or make useful substances. Enzymes are biological catalysts that can help speed up a reaction by providing an active site. This active site is where the reaction takes place and it's shape is specifically opposite or complementary to the substrate that it has to react with. Enzymes are not "used up" in a reaction, the active site can continue to work on many other substrates until they run out and then it must stop. ...read more.

Middle

The yeast cells are capable of converting simple sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The problem is that the yeast cannot work on the raw plant material, as the sugars are too complex. This means that the nutrients have to be processed first in the process of malting. Malting is the process where the barley is allowed to partly grow and the endogenous (originating from within) enzymes are released to break up the starch and proteins to simple sugars. The yeast can use these simple sugars and amino acids and alcohol is produced as a by-product of their reaction with the nutrients. This is an expensive way of manufacturing enzymes and is not always easy to control. There are much better ways that can also prove to be more economic, for example, by adding proteases and glucanases to the plant material then it releases the nutrients more swiftly and the alcohol process can be started quicker. ...read more.

Conclusion

The enzymes that are used on spot remover products are more concentrated versions of the detergent itself, and they help save on detergent as they loosen the stain before it goes into the wash. Also the wash can be put onto a lower temperature as the enzyme is just as effective at a lower temperature of there isn't so much stain to remove. Most products are now more environmentally friendly as they contain less bleaching agents and phosphates and the enzyme technology is increasing so they are improving them all the time to save energy. Medicine The enzymes that are used in medicine can be for diagnosis or they can be extracting useful materials known to have properties to help a specific illness. Many illnesses actually stem from the fact that people have an enzyme production deficiency in their body so the enzymes can be "grown" in bulk and sold as pharmaceutical products as treatment for this deficiency. ...read more.

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