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Treatment of Kidney Failure

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Treatment of Kidney Failure When a patient has a mild to moderate kidney failure where the serum creatinine is less than 400 �mol/L, he does not require renal replacement therapy such as dialysis or renal transplant. This is due to the fact that he still has enough residual renal function to sustain life. However he requires certain medications and dietary restriction to delay damage to the kidney. When his serum creatinine increase to 900 �mol/L, he requires dialysis or a kidney transplant. Dialysis in General Dialysis is a process which allows diffusion of solutes dissolved in blood across a semi- permeable membrane into another solution and vice versa. This means that it removes waste products through this special membrane and bicarbonate can diffuse across to the blood to neutralise acid. ...read more.


Fresh dialysis solution is drained into the abdominal cavity through the catheter again. Each exchange takes about 45 minutes. There are two forms of peritoneal dialysis : * CAPD or Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis - The patient will perform four exchanges during the day * APD or Automated Peritoneal Dialysis - The exchanges are performed by the machine during the night while the patient is asleep. The advantages and disadvantages of peritoneal dialysis Advantages Disadvantages Patient's involvement in self-care Four exchanges per day Control over schedule Permanent external catheter Less diet & fluid restriction Change of body image More steady physical condition as it provides slow, continuous therapy Potential weight gain Most similar to original kidneys Some risks of infection Can be done in the night as in automated peritoneal dialysis If on automated ...read more.


An access is a specially created vein in the arm known as arterio-venous (AV) fistula. In haemodialysis, the blood channels through plastic tubings (blood lines) to the dialyzer which is a bundle of hollow fibres made up from semi-permeable membrane. Here the exchange (diffusion) takes place from blood to the dialysis solution (dialysate) and vice versa. The dialysate has a salt composition similar to blood but without any waste products. Usually one dialysis session takes about 4 hours to complete and patient requires dialysis 3 times a week. The advantages and disadvantages of haemodialysis Advantages Disadvantages Staff performs treatment in the dialysis centre Requires travel to a dialysis centre Three treatments per week in the dialysis centre Fixed treatment schedule Permanent internal access required Two needle sticks for each treatment; tie onto a machine and cannot move about during treatment Regular contact with people in the centre Diet and fluid intake restriction ...read more.

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This report contains good research but it is incomplete.
1. The report needs to have a title, aim and conclusion.
2. Researched information needs to be referenced.
3. Do not include questions within paragraphs of text, use subheadings to lead the reader through.

Marked by teacher Luke Smithen 23/07/2013

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