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Tsiolkovsky, rockets and forces.

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Tsiolkovsky was a hearing impaired Russian theorist and a great visionary. Tsiolkovsky was the first to establish theories regarding rockets with calculations to back them up. He was the first to calculate the escape velocity of the earth. He had a great imagination, foreseeing not only much of the development of rocketry and space travel to this point, but also developments beyond where we are today. In his mind rockets would carry people out to space stations and then on to the moon and mars. He predicted space suits, artificial gravity and terraforming.  He never put his ideas to a practical test by actually launching a rocket; however he had many insights into how rocket design could be improved. He felt that liquid fuelled rockets would be preferable to solid fuelled rockets, since the thrust on a liquid fuelled rocket could be adjusted by varying the flow rate of the fuel.

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It would be powered by liquid oxygen and hydrogen, creating an explosive mixture in the narrow end of a tube. This would then be combusted, creating heated condensed gases, which would quickly cool and rarefy, escaping through a nozzle and creating a great force (thrust) that propels the rocket.

Law of Conservation of Momentum can be used to analyse rocket motion. Rocket engines generate thrust by burning fuel and expelling the resulting gases. Conservation of momentum means that as the gases move one way, the rocket moves the other. (Momentum before the burning is zero; hence the momentum after is also zero. The gases carry momentum in one direction down, and so the rocket carries an equal momentum in the opposite direction up, as described in newtons 3rd law..evry action has an equal and oppositr reaction.)

Forces experienced by astronauts

Note that two forces act upon an astronaut during launch: the upward thrust (T)

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n class="c2">Konstantin Eduardovitch Tsiolkovsky


V = Vj ln(Mo/ Me)


(A) liquid oxygen tank; (B) liquid hydrogen (or hydrocarbon) tank; (C) crew and equipment; (D) burning chamber; (E) exhaust nozzle; (F) control surfaces (in the stream of exhaust gases).





: a = (T – mg)/m

F = ma

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