• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Tuberculosis and its treatment

Extracts from this document...


Tuberculosis Introduction T uberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that is caused by several species of Mycobacterium, collectively called the tubercle bacillus. The bacillus is a small, rod shaped bacterium that is extremely hardly; it can survive for months in state of dryness and can also resist the action of mild disinfectants. Tuberculosis is a contagious disease. Like the common cold it spreads through the air. Only people who are side with pulmonary tuberculosis are infectious when infectious people cough, sneeze, talk or spit, they propel TB germs, known as bacilli, into the air. A person needs only to inhale small number of theses to be infected. The tubercle bacillus was discovered and identified as the cause of tuberculosis in 1882 by the German physician Robert Koch. Tuberculosis occurs in humans worldwide, and in many developing countries it is still cause of death. The disease reached near epidemic proportions in the rapidly urbanizing and industrializing societies of Europe and North America in the 18th and 19th centuries. Indeed, tuberculosis was the leading cause of death for all age groups in the western world from that period until the early 20th, at which time improved health and hygiene caused a gradual but continuing decline in its mortality rates. New cases of TB worldwide roughly correlate with economic conditions: the highest incidences are seen in those countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America with the lowest gross national products. ...read more.


The drug penetrates well into all body fluids and cavities, producing concentrations similar to those found in serum. The interaction of isoniazid and phenytoin increases the serum concentration of both drugs. When these drugs are given concomitantly, the serum level of phenytoin should be monitored, and the phenytoin dosage decreased if necessary. 2. Rifampin Rifampin is bactericidal for M. tuberculosis. The drug is relatively non-toxic and is easily administered. It is quickly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, with peak serum concentrations (of 6 to 7 ug/ml) occurring 1.5 to 2 h after ingestion. Most strains of M. tuberculosis are inhibited in vitro by concentrations of 0.5 ug/ml. Although approximately 75% of the drug is protein-bound, it penetrates well into tissues and cells. Penetration through noninflamed meninges is poor, but therapeutic concentrations are achieved in cerebrospinal fluid when the meninges are inflamed. The most common adverse reaction to rifampin is gastrointestinal upset. Other reactions include skin. In general, the frequency of these reactions is quite low. Current developments drugs There are a number of new drugs that have been evaluated in children or adults for activity against tuberculosis. These include amikacin, quinolones, rifamycin derivatives, clofazimine, and beta-lactams. None of these agents has been tested in multidrug regimens for treating tuberculosis; however, the recent increase in the occurrence of multidrug- resistant tuberculosis may create more situations where the use of these drugs must be considered. ...read more.


3. Adenovirus based TB vaccines Adenovirus has widely been explored for gene therapy or gene transfer both in experimental animals and human trials and the initial success has been seen in treating certain human genetic and acquired diseases. Experimental evidence also supports the potential use of adenovirus based vaccines for preventing infectious diseases. However, this viral vector has not been explored for TB vaccination. We have initiated a program to develop adenoviral based recombinant TB vaccines. The results indicate that single immunization with an adenoviral TB vaccine expressing Ag85A triggers a stronger T cell IFN-g recall response to recombinant Ag85A or BCG stimulation suggesting that when Ag85A is expressed as such , a broader repertoire of T cells are activated. Adenoviral based TB vaccines have the potential to be used not only to immunize newborns but to boost the immune response in BCG vaccines who have been infected with M.TB. They will be a safer vaccine to be used in HIV infected hosts to prevent or treat TB. These vaccines in conjunction with plasmid DNA based vaccines, may prove to be better than vaccinabased TB vaccine for the prime and boost immunization. Within the next years, these three vaccines should be available for human testing. Conclusion I found that tuberculosis is increase since 1998 in some area of London, but it shows decrease in N ewham area. I found this information by watching the news on 22nd March 2002. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

4 star(s)

This is a very well researched report that includes a good amount of detail.
1. There needs to be a method for indicating which information comes from which source.
2. There are several references to research in which the primary source has not been included.
3. The language used is excellent as it is very concise.
4. The conclusion is very brief and does not summarize the main findings.

Marked by teacher Luke Smithen 16/07/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Energy, Respiration & the Environment essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of Anaerobic Respiration On Yeast

    5 star(s)

    However it is not a significant increase. This suggests that the enzymes are still not quite at their optimum temperature. However as was the case at 30�C there is an increase in energy which causes yet more collisions and allows the enzymes to work more efficiently.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    effect of temperature on the rate of respiration in yeast

    5 star(s)

    This also changes into 4 carbon chain fumarate. Then this changes into malate and this releases from NAD+ to NAD+ + H+. Then this again changes into oxaloacetate and starts the cycle again. After the cycle is been round six times it releases 1 glucose molecule.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the effect of different sugars on respiration in yeast.

    5 star(s)

    For the yeast to be able to respire each different sugar, it needs to contain the specific enzymes for each sugar otherwise it will not be able to break the sugar down (see table below). http://resources.ed.gov.hk/biology/english/images/virtual_lab/enzyme.gif The enzyme complex found in yeast extract that is used to catalyze glycolysis and other reactions in alcoholic fermentation is called zymase.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    The Role of the Respiratory and Circulatory Systems in the Provision of Oxygen and ...

    3 star(s)

    Several nervous and hormonal factors can affect the heart rate and blood pressure. During an increase or decrease in physical activity the heart rate can vary from 50 to 200 beats per minute and this requires careful regulation by the nervous system.

  1. Cycles in Biology.

    Carbon is stored in the lithosphere in both inorganic and organic forms. Inorganic deposits of carbon in the lithosphere include fossil fuels like coal, oil, and natural gas, oil shale, and carbonate based sedimentary deposits like limestone.

  2. An investigation into the effects of temperature on the rate of anaerobic respiration of ...

    The variance of each sample= Temperature (�C) Length of bubble (mm) 20 3 2 10 9 7 5 4 5 4 13 Length of bubbles 9 4 100 81 49 25 16 25 16 168 494 49.40 35 9 9 31 19 31 12 18 26 10 44 Length of

  1. Explain how the digestive, cardiovascular and respiratory systems are interrelated

    Kidneys need to excrete waste material, in order to do this toxins are provided by the digestive system and are transported by the cardiovascular system in order for the kidneys to be able to do this. All systems within the body have to work with one another in order to keep the body functioning.

  2. Effects of exercise on tidal volume and breathing rate

    To do this the rate and quantity of oxygen that is breathed into the body needs to be increased. All of the oxygen that is brought into the lungs does not reach the alveoli (gas exchange region of the lungs).

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work