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Use of enzymes in Industry

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Introduction

Enzymes -Neil Satra Introduction to enzymes Enzymes are proteins or biological catalysts that speed up the rate at which biochemical reactions proceed but not altering the direction or nature of the reactions. Today, enzymes are being widely used in the development of food and the other factors in the food industry including packaging, preserving and enhancement of food (color, feel, texture etc.) Though use of enzymes in the food industry have advanced the efficiency and output of the industry and also certain factors related to quality over time, it has quite a few drawbacks relating to freshness, life (before it over-ripens) and taste of the food. How Do Enzymes Work? The picture shows a classic example of how enzymes break up a substance. First, the enzyme has an active site, whose shape exactly matches that of the substrate to be broken down. When the substrate collides with the enzyme, it gets locked into placed at the active site, fitting in there like a lock in a key. Due to the substrate binding with the enzyme, the bonds within the substrate are broken. ...read more.

Middle

Contact lens cleaners To remove proteins on contact lens to prevent infections. Rubber industry To generate oxygen from peroxide to convert latex into foam rubber. Photographic industry Dissolve gelatin off scrap film, allowing recovery of its silver content. Enzymes are used for various applications including: Disadvantages of Using Enzymes: Enzymes are naturally present in foods and their activity can lead to the deterioration of food quality. Enzymes present in animal foods, vegetables and fruit promote chemical reactions, such as ripening. Chemical changes caused by enzymes affect quality or cause spoilage in frozen foods. Enzymes are responsible for browning in fruits and other food products and also cause fading of color and loss of aroma. Enzymes are sensitive to temperature, humidity, pH, and contamination. This subsequently affects the shelf-life quality of enzymes. Where do enzymes come from? Enzymes have been isolated from every type of living organism. They are present in all living cells, where they perform a vital function by controlling the metabolic processes whereby nutrients are converted into energy and fresh cell material. ...read more.

Conclusion

Protease - Degrades proteins. Used to chillproof beer (remove the protein haze in cooled beer), tenderize meats, and to age cheese (Enzyme Modified Cheese EMC). It is also used in the baking industry to act as a dough conditioner. Pectinase - Used in the fruit juice industry to break down pectin. Cellulose - Also used in the fruit juice industry as a pressing aid to break down the cellulose in the fruit. Catalase - Used to degrade hydrogen peroxide (H202). H202 is added to eggs and dairy products to aid in pasteurization, and is subsequently removed by adding catalase. Glucose Oxidase - Used to degrade sugars, such as in dried egg whites. If the sugar would remain the dried egg whites, it would caramelize during the heat treatment to which the powdered eggs are subjected and give a brown color to the product. Invertase - Splits the sucrose molecule into its component fructose and glucose. Used in the confectionery industry. Lactase - Allows the body to digest lactose (milk sugar) by degrading it into its component sugars (glucose and galactose). Trypsin - A primary mammalian protease. Used in some infant formulas to predigest casein. Done By: Neil Satra ...read more.

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