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Uses Of Enzymes in Medicine and Industry

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Introduction

Uses Of Enzymes in Medicine and Industry Enzymes are used widely across medicine and industry. Through this essay I will go through some examples of each case, and explain the complexities of these examples. Enzymes are biological catalysts that enable specific reactions to take place. Catalysts are widely used in industry, to increase the rate of a reaction, or allow the reaction to take place without resorting to high temperatures and pressures. One of the most important and widely used enzymes in industry and everyday life is the catalytic converter in cars. They are devices incorporated into the exhaust system of cars which use catalysts to convert pollutant gases into harmless products. Another example of enzymes used in industry is the major role in the brewing industry. The yeast converts sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide. However, these sugars are stored as starch in plants, consequently this meant the process of malting had to be undertaken. ...read more.

Middle

They are also faster. Many sweet syrups are formed that are needed throughout the food and drink industry. Three stages can be identified in starch modification. Firstly, amylases free "maltodextrin" by the liquefaction process. Such maltodextrins are not very sweet as they contain dextrins and oligosaccharides. The dextrins and oligosaccharides are further hydrolysed by enzymes such as pullulanase and glucoamylase in a process known as saccharification. Complete saccharification converts all the limit dextrins to glucose, maltose and isomaltose. The resulting syrups are relatively sweet and are regularly modified further. Treatment of glucose or maltose syrups with glucose isomerase converts a large proportion of the glucose to fructose, which is sweeter than glucose. High fructose syrups contain fairly equal portions of fructose and glucose. The high fructose syrups are in greater demand than pure glucose as food and drink sweeteners, because fructose is sweeter than glucose. Therefore when glucose can be converted in to fructose its value significantly increases. ...read more.

Conclusion

The reaction that is produced in biological system will then be converted to an electrical signal by a transducer. In this example of a glucose biosensor it uses glucose oxidase as its biological system. Glucose oxides catalyses the reaction between glucose and oxygen to produce gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide. After this the glucose is then detected and measured according to the amount of oxygen consumed or gluconic acid produced. This results in a change in the electrical signal created by the transducer. Below is table showing the type of enzymes used in various treatments in medicine. Enzyme Reaction Use Asparaginase L-Asparagine H2O L-aspartate + NH3 Leukaemia Collagenase Collagen hydrolysis Skin ulcers Glutaminase L-Glutamine H2O L-glutamate + NH3 Leukaemia Hyaluronidase Hyaluronate hydrolysis Heart attack Lysozyme Bacterial cell wall hydrolysis Antibiotic Rhodanase S2O32- + CN- SO32- + SCN- Cyanide poisoning Ribonuclease RNA hydrolysis Antiviral ?-Lactamase Penicillin penicilloate Penicillin allergy Streptokinase Plasminogen plasmin Blood clots Trypsin Protein hydrolysis Inflammation Uricase Urate + O2 allantoin Gout Urokinase Plasminogen plasmin Blood clots This concludes my essay on the uses of enzymes in medicine and industry. ...read more.

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