• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Uses of Enzymes - Pectinase and fruit juice production

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Natalia Restrepo 12/10/04 Uses of Enzymes Pectinase and fruit juice production Pectinase consists of a mixture of enzymes that break down Pectin. It is gel-like and is found in the primary cells of a plant and in the middle lamella (a cementing layer between two plant cells). Many microorganisms use pectinase to attack plants by breaking down their cell wall that contains pectin and helps the cell wall maintain its structure. Pectinase is used in the production of fruit juice, where they help extract, clarify and modify the juices. Pectinase found in: Pectinase is produced during the natural ripening stages of most fruits. Through this process, it helps soften the fruits' cell walls. The enzyme breaks down pectins which are found in plant cell walls. This increases the yield of juice extracted from the fruits by 20% and only 150 cm3 are needed for a ton of apples. ...read more.

Middle

Currently used food enzymes sometimes originate in animals and plants (for example, a starch-digesting enzyme, amylase, can be obtained from germinating barley seeds) but most come from a range of beneficial micro-organisms. Using enzymes in food production has five main advantages: * They are biodegradable meaning that they are made of substances that will decay relatively quickly and will decompose naturally * They are welcomed as an alternative to chemicals like synthetics * They have fewer side reactions than synthetic chemicals which means that they also give products of high quality and reduce the chances of pollution * They allow some processes to be carried out which would otherwise be impossible. (An example is the production of clear apple juice concentrate, which relies on the use of the enzyme, pectinase.) * So far, there have been no reports of consumer allergies to enzyme residues in food. ...read more.

Conclusion

The enzyme lactase hydrolyses lactose to give lactose-free milk products. This is very beneficial to people who are lactose intolerant because they are provided with the enzyme that they need in order to break down the dairy products that they consume (Lactose intolerance is a condition resulting from low activity or absence of the enzyme lactase, which is responsible for the digestion of milk sugar.) Lactase produced commercially can be extracted from yeast fungi. Its main commercial use is to break down lactose in milk to make it suitable for people with lactose intolerance. Lactase is also used in the manufacture of ice cream. Because glucose and galactose are sweeter than lactose, lactase produces a more pleasant taste. Lactose also crystallizes at the low temperatures of ice cream, however, in its constituent products stay liquid and contribute to a smoother texture. Lactase is used in the conversion of whey into syrup and is also used as a sweetener in many products. Hydrolysis of Lactose: ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How does the concentration of enzymes affect the breakdown of starch by a-amylase in ...

    4 star(s)

    To avoid getting iodine solution in eyes, safety glasses will be worn at all times. Diagrams: Pilot Test Numerous pilot tests were carried out in order to test whether the constants and variables chosen above worked or not. The following will show the results of these pilot tests, and will

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Effect of temperature on the enzyme pectinase in fruit juice production.

    3 star(s)

    of enzymes, I predict that the most amount of fruit juice is going to be produced at a temperature of between 30-40 degrees. I chose this temperature because this is the optimum temperature for the enzyme Pectinase, at which it works most effectively and it therefore would be able to breakdown pectin more effectively at this temperature.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    An investigation into the inhibiting effect of tomato juice on the germination of cress ...

    3 star(s)

    For instance, the inhibitors can affect the enzyme amylase. Amylase is used to convert starch into glucose. The glucose is then used as a respiratory substrate to produce ATP. Without respiration the seed cannot germinate (because energy/ATP is needed for metabolisms for growth).

  2. The use of pectinase in fruit juice production

    So the enzyme is said to be denatured because it can no longer bind with substrate molecules to form enzyme-substrate complex. In this experiment, pH was kept constant by using buffer solution which is pH 5.5. This is assumed to be the optimum pH for pectinase, pH at which pectinase works best and the rate of reaction is the fastest.

  1. The Effect of Concentration on Pectinase Using Apple

    Overall this experiment is fairly safe if all the above risks are adhered to and correct conduct is exercised during the experiment. It is also important to clean up any spillages as soon as they occur and make sure apparatus is left in safe areas after the experiment is finished.

  2. An investigation into the effect of varying pH on the yield of apple juice ...

    A glass rod is utilised as the consistency of the pureed apple means that swirling the beaker will not ensure a reaction between all the apple and pectinase. Swirling the buffer and pectinase solution, as a means of mixing is likely to induce greater losses than if a glass rod is used to stir the substances.

  1. The planned experiment is to measure the effect on the production of apple juice ...

    * Turn on Bunsen burner and close the whole so the flame goes blue, and place the apple chunks into the saucepan that I stood on the tripod. * While the apple is cooking, place all six test tubes in the metal test tube rack.

  2. Growing Micro-organisms

    Questions: 1. Why are you growing yeast cells in a glucose solution? Answer: I am growing yeast cells in a glucose solution because glucose is a simple respiratory substrate. 2. Where would it be best to store the suspension? Answer: It would be best to store the beaker of yeast

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work