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Using Catalysts to Manufacture Margarine

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Introduction

´╗┐Uses of inorganic substances Uses of inorganic substances How nickel is used as a catalyst Nickel is on the first row of the metal group on the periodic table at number 8, its periodic arrangement is as follow: 4s2 3d8 A catalyst is substance that changes the chemical rate of reaction; it usually changes it by speeding it up Hydrocarbons are compounds that only contain hydrogen atoms and carbon atoms that have been joined together by some chemical bonds. The most common types of hydrocarbons are alkenes. A Saturated hydrocarbon is when the hydrocarbon only contains a single bond between carbon atoms. Alkenes are hydrocarbons that contain at least one double bond in at least two carbon atoms, this that is why they are unsaturated. H2 Catalyst In the manufacture of margarine, people use nickel in hydrogenation of vegetable oils. Hydrogenation is when you add hydrogen to substances. Unsaturated vegetables oils can react with hydrogen at the temperature of 60 degrees if there is a nickel catalyst present. In the manufacture of margarine, nickel catalyst is used as a hydrogenation process to get the right texture on the product (margarine). For example if you want a hard texture, you can raise the melting point of the oil used by hydrogenating it with the nickel catalyst. ...read more.

Middle

Are other catalysts better to manufacture margarine? Palladium and platinum are both alternatives of catalysts but the problem with them is that they don?t work as well as nickel. Unlike palladium and platinum, nickel does a really good job at adsorbing reactant which is when reactants stick on the active sites of the surface of the catalyst. Normally, the role of a good catalyst is to absorb the molecules from the reactant strongly enough so they can react but not too strongly to the point that the molecules will not be able to leave the surface later on. This is exactly what nickel as a good catalyst does to the reactants it comes in contact with. Unlike nickel, silver is not a really good catalyst because it doesn?t hold the reactant molecules strongly enough for them to react, which lead to no reaction at all. Palladium is another example of bad catalyst because its grip on the reactant?s molecule isn?t as good as nickel?s. http://www.organic-chemistry.org/Highlights/2006/05Marc4.GIF mechanism of catalytic hydrogenation of C2H4 http://www.chemgapedia.de/vsengine/media/vsc/en/ch/2/oc/reaktionen/formale_systematik/oxidation_reduktion/reduktion/addition_wasserstoff/hydrierung_alkene/hydrierung_mit_pt/mech_en.gif Copper uses and properties Copper as a metal is a really good conductor of electricity and heat which allows it to have multiple uses, malleable metal which means that it is soft enough and can easily be bent and be reshaped. ...read more.

Conclusion

Usually, copper cable can support a maximum of only 32Eu/t but a gold cable can support a maximum of 128 Eu/t Copper is the best conductor of electricity because its electricity conductivity is of 100 compared to the other metals. Copper has a density of 8.9 which is quite dense for a metal that is supposed to be a conductor of electricity. Iron on the other hand has a density of about 7.9 which is not far from the density of copper but is still less dense which therefore makes a better electricity conductor. In addition, iron is a stronger metal with the strength of 1000 compared to copper which has a strength of 300. This makes iron a more suitable metal for uses in electrical cable. The fact that cupper has a higher density than the other metals means that it has more electrons and for any metals, the denser it is the better its electricity conductivity will be. That is why cupper, which has a higher electricity conductivity than aluminium and steel is better at conducting electricity than these other metals therefore making it more suitable for electrical cable uses. ...read more.

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