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# We are aiming to accurately prepare a standard solution of 0.1 M (mol dm-3) sodium carbonate; this solution will then be used to calculate the concentration of a hydrochloric acid solution

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Introduction

﻿Serena Wright Gardner Titration Aim A common practise carried out in the laboratory is to accurately prepare chemical solutions. We are aiming to accurately prepare a standard solution of 0.1 M (mol dm-3) sodium carbonate; this solution will then be used to calculate the concentration of a hydrochloric acid solution. Background The most convenient ways to express concentration is in: g dm-3 grams per cubic decimetre or grams per litre mol dm-3 the number of moles per cubic decimetre For measuring accurately, you will use equipment like pipettes, burettes and volumetric flasks. Experiment 1 Making a solution of sodium carbonate (alkali) by weighing Below is the standard procedure that I followed I copied and pasted it into my work: Calculate the mass of sodium carbonate needed, m1. Weigh a clean weighing bottle, and record its mass, m2. (See figure a) With a clean spatula, add pure anhydrous sodium carbonate until the combined mass of weighing bottle and sodium carbonate = m1+m2. Transfer the sodium carbonate carefully into a clean beaker. (See figure b) Use a washed bottle of distilled water so that all the washings run into the beaker. Add about 100 cm3 of distilled water. Stir with a glass rod until the entire solid has dissolved. (See figure c) ...read more.

Middle

The method uses a titration in which an acid is added to a base, until there is just enough of the acid to neutralise the base. An indicator tells when exactly the right volume of solution has been added to achieve neutralisation. When the concentration of the acidic and basic complexes of the indicator is equal, the indicator is said to be at its end point. The amount of acid it takes to neutralise the base is recorded. The concentrations of one of the two solutions must be known, and the volumes of both must be measured. You can use a standard solution of a base to find out the concentration of a solution of an acid. You have to find out what volume of the acid solution of unknown concentration is needed to neutralise a known volume, usually 25.0cm3, of the standard solution of a base. ________________ Method Use a pipette to deliver 25.0cm3 (V2) of the alkali solution into a clean conical flask Add a few drops of indicator. (The alkali solution in this experiment is the standard solution you made up of 0.1M Sodium Carbonate (M2) ) Wash the burette with a little of the acid solution. Allow the solution to run into the tip of the burette. Read the burette (from the bottom of the meniscus) and record this ?initial volume of acid? in the results table) ...read more.

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