• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

We are going to find out how different enzymes (in this case, trypsin) concentration in a solution would affect the rate of which solute (Casein) is broken down.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Enzyme concentration and enzyme activity For this investigation, we are going to find out how different enzymes (in this case, trypsin) concentration in a solution would affect the rate of which solute (Casein) is broken down. I think enzyme concentration would definitely have an effect on the rate of reaction. My hypothesis is that increasing the concentration of trypsin would also increase the rate of catalysation of casein. Enzyme (a globular protein) is used to catalyse specific biological reactions by lowering the activation energy and they are left unchanged by the end of the reaction, for example trypsin is responsible for catalysing the break down of casein (a protein typically found in milk - it is what makes it ?opaque?) into smaller molecules which the body can absorb. This means the reaction can occur in a faster pace. This is important since without enzymes the molecule cannot break down fast enough on its own to provide us with constant nutrients. The reaction happens with an enzyme-substrate complex forming between trypsin and casein.The formation of this complex is explained by the induced- fit hypothesis,where the enzyme has a distinct and flexible active site, as oppose to a rigid one suggested in the lock-and-key model. Once the casein enters and attaches to the active site of trypsin, the shape of its site will modify around the substrate to form the active complex, once the reaction is complete, the now broken down substrate will leave the active site and the enzyme reverts to its previous, unmodified form. ...read more.

Middle

Our team has decided to take the absorbancy reading every minute for 10 minutes since it seemed like an appropriate time interval, 30 seconds seems to rushed and we may not be able to see a clear pattern of absorbancy if we take the reading more than 1 minute apart. Furthermore, we?ve decided to set the observing period as 10 minutes because rate of reaction seems to start to even off by that time and so we would not need to observe any longer. We then discarded the content in the cuvette and rinsed it with distilled water repeated all the steps from adding 2cm3 of casein for each of the remain concentration of trypsin instead of using distilled water. We had to rinse the cuvette to make sure the solution left over would not affect the result of our next concentration. Apart from all the precaution we?ve set up in our investigation, there are still errors made as shown in our original result (very inaccurate, the values increased rapidly instead of decreasing), we could have taken more care to improve our method. These improvements will be mentioned and explained later on. (The results on the next page are ones we obtained from our class since our own results are too inaccurate to use.) The class result: The results shows there is definitely a decrease in absorbancy as we decrease the trypsin concentration at a certain time interval. ...read more.

Conclusion

We used precautions to try and reduce the amounts of errors made. However, in the end the calorimeter we used (to produce our set of result) seemed to be faulty, therefore there wasn?t really anything we could?ve done to avoid it apart form early detection (of faulty apparatus) by performing a preliminary trial. Overall I would say this is not a very successful investigation within our team since looking at our own result, it did not prove my hypothesis. It was only when looking at the class results was I able to make correct deduction and analysis. Risk assessment Hazard Risk Precautions Test tubes * Breaking it and hurting yourself / others * Use test tube rack * Remove broken glass immediately * Avoid cutting yourself when removing shards. Electrical appliances (water baths) * Electric shock * Keep water away from plugs * Do not use wet hands to plug in/ unplug Chemicals / solutions used * Have an allergic reaction to trypsin or casein * Be aware that they can be an allergen * Avoid contact as much as possible * Rinse immediate if it dropped on your skin Many people crowded at one place (near water bath) * People tripping/ falling and hurting themselves * Be careful when taking out chemicals * Avoid collision with other people. * Do not run or walk carelessly Reference/ image sources pH graph http://alevelnotes.com/Factors-affecting-Enzyme-Activity/146 Enzyme - Substrate complex diagram http://www.hsc.csu.edu.au/biology/core/balance/9_2_1/921net.html Enzyme concentration graph http://alevelnotes.com/Factors-affecting-Enzyme-Activity/146 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    How does the concentration of enzymes affect the breakdown of starch by a-amylase in ...

    4 star(s)

    Distance by which clearance rings have increased (mm) 2 to 4 1.7 4 to 6 1.8 6 to 8 1.6 8 to 10 2.1 As you can see from these results, the average results are also fluctuating, which means it is hard to say which way it is increasing (decreasing increase or increasing increase).

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Enzyme concentrations using trypsin enzume and casein solution

    Analysis of results The rate of an enzyme reaction depends on the concentrations of enzyme and substrate. As the concentration of the trypsin increases the percentage of transmission rate also increases. Provided that the substrate concentration is high and that temperature is kept constant, the rate of reaction is proportional to the enzyme concentration.

  1. An Investigation Into the Effect of Substrate Concentration On the Rate of Enzyme Activity.

    Discussion The results show that there are trends and patterns in my data. There is quite a big range between the fastest median temperature (2.5 seconds at 80oC) and the slowest median temperature (24.5 seconds at 5oC). The results generally show that as the temperature increases the rate of reaction

  2. Investigation of the effect of adding different concentrations of NaCl to an enzyme-substrate (amylase-starch) ...

    Again this is very important in order to prevent inaccurate and unreliable results. � Volume of iodine solution in the spotting tiles will be kept as constant as possible though it may be difficult when using a pipette. � Concentration of NaCl added to the solution will be varied, as

  1. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the effect of temperature on the ...

    Denaturation is time-dependent, so exposure to a high temperature for a brief period of time will have less effect on the enzyme than prolonged exposure. I predict that the optimum temperature of trypsin added to the casein will have an optimum temperature of about 40 �C when heated.

  2. Investigate the effect of enzyme temperature on the activity of the enzyme Trypsin on ...

    This increases the reaction rate. Above the optimum temperature, the enzyme is denatured as it is a protein and its structure begins to break down due to excessive heat. The bonds holding its structure will break and the active site loses its shape meaning it won't work.

  1. To find out how different concentrations of sucrose solution affect the incipient plasmolysis of ...

    As the water molecules enter the cell it becomes turgid which means the vacuole will swell up and push the cytoplasm to the end of the cell wall. The greatest hypotonic solution should exist at 0.3M. When the cell becomes turgid this will create a pressure potential which will cause

  2. The main aim of this experiment is to investigate how varying the concentration of ...

    of 1% enzyme solution into the test tube. We next poured out 15 cm3 (as accurately as possible) of Milk (4%) into a separate test tube. 4. We then got the stopwatch ready, and as soon as the two solutions were poured into a single test tube, we started the stopwatch and commenced the experiment.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work