• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

What are Light Microscopes?

Extracts from this document...



What are Light Microscopes?

What does the word microscope mean:  The first part of the word “Micro” means tiny. The “scope” part means to look at or view.  Microscopes are tools that are used too enlarge images of small objects so that they can be studied.

A light microscope is an instrument made up of two lens they are eyepiece lens and the object lens combined they produce a much greater magnification that what is possible with just one single lens. The microscope also has a variety of knobs to focus the picture seen thought the microscope.  The light microscope is also known as the compound microscope this is because it uses more than one lens.

The light microscope uses visible light to detect small objects; the microscope consists of an optical instrument that magnifies the image of an object.  It is probably the most used research tool in biology. The total magnification is calculated by multiplying the magnification of the two lenses inside the microscope.  Images looked at under the light microscope are reversed and inverted.

...read more.


The membrane protein performs several functions. Branched carbohydrate molecules attached to the outside of some membrane protein molecules give the cell its immunological identity. They can act as specific receptors for hormones and other chemicals massagers. Some of them are enzymes and some are involved in transport across the membrane.

Nuclear membrane: the layer that surrounds the nucleus. The nuclear membrane is a double membrane formed by two lipid bilayers separated by a gap of20-40nm (the perinuclear space). About 15% of its surface is made of nuclear pores, which indicate that it too has a large amount of substances passing in and out of the nucleus.

Nucleus: in every cell in the body has a nucleus, with the exception of the mature e erythrocytes (the red blood cells). The nucleus is the largest structure inside the cell and is contained with in a membrane similar to the plasma membrane, but it has tiny pores through which some substances can pass between it and the cytoplasm. The nucleus contains the entire DNA and its main function is to control all the activities of the cell.


...read more.


Vacuoles: Vacuoles are surrounded by membranes. They are sort of like a storage bubble in the cytoplasm. Food cannot pass through membranes until it is broken into smaller particles. The lysosome can fuse with the vacuole membrane and squirt digestive enzymes into the food vacuole to break down what is in there. Your white blood cells do this when they eat invading bacteria. Vacuoles can also store the indigestible wastes until they can fuse with the cell membrane and squirt the wastes outside.

Ribosome: Have sub cellular particles on which proteins are synthesized. Bacterial ribosome is approximately 20 nm or 200 A (angstroms) in diameter. In higher organisms, ribosome is associated with internal cell membranes (the endoplasmic reticulum) protein synthesis in mitochondria or chloroplasts uses ribosome smaller than and different from those in the cytoplasm.

Lysosome: A lysosome is a membrane bag containing digestive enzymes. When a cell needs to digest food, the lysosome membrane fuses with the membrane of a food vacuole and squirts the enzymes inside. The digested food can then diffuse through the vacuole membrane and enter the cell to be used for energy orgrowth. The only thing that keeps the cell itself from being digested is the membrane surrounding the lysosome.

...read more.

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Microscopes & Lenses section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Microscopes & Lenses essays

  1. History of the Microscope

    Taking care of the microscope The worst enemies of the microscope are careless users, for example air, grease from fingers, liquid and chemicals from slides, oil, etc. So to avoid this there are certain ways to clean up the microscope.

  2. My experiments focus is to obtain an accurate measurement for a specific lenss power.

    The two readings of 6.50 D and 6.46 D give an average of 6.48 D +/- 0.02D. This is a relatively small uncertainty- (0.02/6.48)x100= 0.309%. In comparison to the claimed power of 6.67 Dioptres, the result is 0.19 Dioptres out; hence there is an error of (0.19/6.67)x100= 2.85% provided the claimed power is correct.

  1. This essay is on vision, its malfunctions & diagnostics methods.

    the condition is termed Ocular Hypotony. Intraocular pressure is typically measured by using a tonometer. Often eye drops are given to alleviate any pain. The procedure involves applying a dye (florescein) to the eye. This eases the examiners ability to see the cornea.

  2. What is an atomic orbital?

    The "1" represents the fact that the orbital is in the energy level closest to the nucleus. The "s" tells you about the shape of the orbital. s orbitals are spherically symmetric around the nucleus - in each case, like a hollow ball made of rather chunky material with the nucleus at its centre.

  1. A brief history of how the light microscope has developed since the 17th Century ...

    They have, for example, helped to reveal the surface structures of various materials and confirmed the shapes and behaviours of bacteria as well as animal and human cells and cell components. They are important in research examining the effects of various manipulations or treatments of these various types of subject matter.

  2. Electron Microscopes

    The image produced is called an electron micrograph. The electron beam can also be reflected into a viewing port. The fluorescent screen, which reflects the electron beam, is coated with electron sensitive compounds, as the image produced by the electron beam cannot be viewed directly.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work