• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

World distribution and economic effects of AIDS

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

AIDS - Acquired immune deficiency syndrome World distribution and economic effects of AIDS AIDS was first diagnosed in the USA and although now a world wide pandemic, the main extent of the AIDS problem is concentrated in the continent of Africa, especially south of the Sahara desert. In 2004 30 million Africans were infected and living with AIDS, it is estimated that up to a third of central African are infected with the virus HIV. In other parts of the world the AIDS problem at this time is not so severe however the virus is spreading rapidly, especially in Russia and the former Soviet Union countries. In South East Asia the problem is growing the fastest, due to half the world's population living in that corner of the world. It is thought that by 2010 the AIDS problem in South East Asia will have dwarfed the problem in Africa. Currently in western MEDC countries the percentage of populations with AIDS is low in comparison and the percentage with AIDS is generally concentrated in needle injecting drug users and homosexuals. ...read more.

Middle

Eventually the infected individual can succumb to most forms of infection due to their immune system being so weak. AIDS is culmination of diseases gained due to a weakened immune system. People effectively die of a secondary often common disease. Replication of HIV First the HIV retrovirus attaches to a receptor site on the surface of the host cell, the envelope then fuses with the hosts cell membrane. Reverse transcriptase then makes a single strand of DNA from a single strand of viral RNA, a complementary strand is them made. The now double strand of DNA inserts itself into the chromosomal DNA of the cell. From here the viral DNA is the transcribed into mRNA which codes for the synthesis of proteins. New viruses are therefore made and leave the cell to infect other cells. Modes of transmission HIV is transmitted in either the blood or semen. Therefore it generally spreads via slight abrasions that may occur during sexual contact with an infected person or via the use of hypodermic needles that have been previously used by an infected person. ...read more.

Conclusion

Vaccines for the virus are hard to develop as the HIV is able to change it's surface proteins. As HIV is a retro virus it is also possible that any vaccine based on an attenuated whole virus could cause cancer. Prevention A very effective of preventing being infected by HIV is the use of a condom to provide a physical barrier between the two people. Limiting sexual partners can also easily decrease risk. The use and wide availability of clean needles can also help prevent transmission. Screening blood to be used for transmission and eliminating blood that is HIV positive can reduce transmission via transfusions. Sex education and HIV education and awareness programmes can also be effective in preventing the virus. Contact tracing is important in the control of the spread of the virus in the UK. Once diagnosed with the virus the infected person is asked to identify people they may have put at risk via intercourse or needles. These people are then offered a HIV test if they are found to be positive they then give the names of people the may have put at risk as so on. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    The Problem of Endangerment in Siberian Tigers

    3 star(s)

    Chinese market1 and led to a rapid decrease in the Siberian tiger population. Figure 2 Pie Chart showing captive Siberian Tiger distribution4 The distribution of Siberian tigers was at high rate of trade at an estimation of sixty tigers per year.

  2. Recombinant DNA, genetically engineered DNA prepared in vitro by cutting up DNA molecules and ...

    He produced plants that were either tall or short, with flowers that were either red or white. From his experiments, Mendel concluded that certain hereditary factors--now called genes--were present in the sex cells of both male and female plants. He reasoned that the combination of these factors in the two sex cells resulted in the traits expressed in the offspring.

  1. Defense in the blood

    is not irreducibly complex, so a simpler clotting cascade might be something like the one that lacked plasminogen and fibrinogen, which could be expanded into the modern clotting system by gene duplication. Perhaps there are other stable systems of lesser complexity, and the entire cascade could then be built up

  2. Free essay

    Genetic Screening

    The heel is pressed onto a piece of filter paper which collects the blood and is then sent to a laboratory. A disk is then punched out of the filter paper and placed onto a plate filled with agar gel.

  1. Recycling- The Effects

    Yes 28 No 14 If you do not find recycling easy, why? It takes a long time to sort through my rubbish 6 There is not enough information provided on how to recycle 2 My specified containers for recycling are not big enough to hold my waste 2 I am

  2. HIV & AIDS

    As time moves on the depletion of immune cells increases leaving the body open to opportunistic infection. This is where normal sickness, disease, and other things in the environment are now able to attack the bodies system. This stage is called the chronic symptomatic disease.

  1. Cell Theory - Discuss the theory that living organisms are composed of cells.

    single stranded Helix yes no 2.6.2 Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand complementary to the DNA strand by RNA polymerase. * DNA strands by RNA polymerase. * mRNA forms by complementary base pairing to DNA strand * RNA polymerase binds sugar and phosphate groups

  2. A study into the effectiveness of Hydroxycarbamide (Hydroxyurea) in treating the complications caused by ...

    595 Words Detection and Diagnosis: Haemoglobin electrophoresis - Haemoglobin electrophoresis is a test that measures the different types of the oxygen-carrying protein haemoglobin in the blood. Blood is taken from a vein, in an airtight vial or tube attached to the needle and taken away to be analysed.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work