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Young Modulus of Copper

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Introduction

Young Modulus of Copper

Dateofexperiment:23/9/2009

By7MLamKaiLok(10) _ Group 4

Objectives :

To measure the Young modulus of copper by finding its elastic limit first , followed by measuring the ratio of stress to strain within this range .

Apparatus :

2 copper wires , 1 G-clamp , 2 wooden blocks , 1 half-meter rule , 1 meter rule , 1 micrometer screw gauge , 1 pulley clamp , 2 adhesive label and slotted masses with hanger

Theory :

Recalling the memory of Hooke’s Law that we learn in F.6 , it states that the extension of the spring is directly proportional to the force applied on it , which is F = kx . What’s more , when we examine the fundamental nature of the spring , we can see that spring is actually a rolled wire , therefore someone suggest that the Hooke’s Law can also be applied to explain the relation between the force and the extension of a wire .

After a lot of experiments , physicists have found that for most metals , the results obey Hooke’s Law at the beginning ; However , after reaching a certain value , the results are not consistent with what the Hooke’s Law states .

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Middle

0.005

0.006

0.007

0.7

0.75

0.8

0.85

0.9

0.95

1

1.05

0.011

0.02

0.038

0.059

0.077

0.104

0.138

break

image14.png

image03.png

image08.png

image02.png

image15.png

From the graph of mass against e , the elastic limit is at m = 0.6 kg approximately .

Elastic limit stress = image17.pngimage17.png = image18.pngimage18.png = image19.pngimage19.png = image20.pngimage20.png = 0.145 GPa

Percentage strain the wire can withstand before the elastic limit is exceeded

= image21.pngimage21.png X 100% = image22.pngimage22.png X 100% = 0.383 %

Percentage breaking strain = image21.pngimage21.png X 100% = image23.pngimage23.png X 100% = 8.96 %

Part 2

Original length(nature length) of wire , L = 1.531 m

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Conclusion

Conclusions :

Comparing the shape of the graphs , it is obviously that the result is close to the theory . Although the random error is almost 12% , it is still acceptable as human errors must exist inevitably. However , the systematic error in this experiment is quite large due to the inaccuracy of equipments , therefore better design or improvements are required .

Possible Improvements :

  1. Repeat the experiment for several times to get a more precise average reading .
  2. Use a longer copper wire to lower the percentage error in measurement .
  3. A thinner copper wire is also recommended as it can make the extension larger for better resolution .
  4. Use a large Vernier Caliper instead of meter rule so that the extension of the wire can be measured more accurately . If it is possible , it is also suggested to use a electronic Vernier Caliper as well .
  5. Add weights at smaller intervals instead of 50g jumps .This would help in making the graphs more accurate, therefore allowing us to read off the graph more accurately and getting better readings.

THE END

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