• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Assess the Sociological explanations of social class differences

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Assess the Sociological explanations of social class differences In crime rates. According to the crime rate in England and Wales, the most committed crime amongst male and females was; theft and handling of stolen goods. These crimes, and similar to most crimes are mostly committed by the working-class; nevertheless this is not to say that other social class do not commit crimes. Explanation for crime and deviance in society has been attempted to be explained by many sociologists, for example labelling theory, subculture theory and also left/right realist. However they focus on working-class crimes, and fail to provide an explanation for middle-class. High crime rates amongst working class people may be down to the targeting of working class people, as explained by internationalist. According to intereactionist acts labelled as deviant tend to be committed by certain types of people. For example, police tend to target specific groups, of whom were mostly likely working-class. This is due to the perception held by the police of the 'typical criminal', they are more likely to see the activities of young men from the lower levels of the class structure and from certain ethnic minority groups as suspicious. ...read more.

Middle

The lack of a male role model or even the presence of a negative role model causes crime as discussed by Cloward and Ohlin. They argued that different social environment provide different opportunities for crime and deviance, which encouraged the development of different delinquent subcultures. Young men who were presented with negative role models, who taught them a life of crime, were known as Criminal subcultures. These men were given the opportunity to climb the professional criminal hierarchy, to become 'successful' by participating in crime which brings monetary gain. Another sociologist explaining crime in terms of the subcultural theory, Miller, argued that there is a distinctive lower-class subculture which is passed of from generation to generation. Which arose from the experience of low-skilled labour that involved boring, repetitive and dead-end jobs? Lower-class subculture provides ways of living with this situation of finding satisfaction outside of work, often by breaking the law. Concern with toughness lead to fights, and concerns with excitement resulted in joy-riding or robbery. ...read more.

Conclusion

It is the combination of individualism and relative deprivation that lead to crime. Individualism refers to a focus on and concern with the self, to a demand for individual freedom and autonomy. It is the result of the breakdown of close-knit communities and the break-up of families. Both, street crimes and white-collar crimes are dealt with differently. Street crimes are dealt by the police with harsh punishment, to stop the crime being committed again. More money is spent on tackling street crime, ways such as tougher surveillance. On the other hand, white collar crime is not dealt by the criminal justice system; they are dealt with by regulatory bodies. Who are more likely to issue 'official warnings' to make things right rather than pursue prosecutions. Regulatory bodies advise and warn rather than punish. Even when white-collar crimes are prosecuted and found guilty of a criminal offence; their punishment tends to be lenient, such as community service, a fine, or a short sentence in an open prison. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Crime & Deviance section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Crime & Deviance essays

  1. Crime: Social construction or reality?

    conditions which are crucial to the decision to act against the deviant. The fifth element is 'The wider origins of deviant reaction'; the political and ideological concerns of the state need to be addressed. The sixth element is 'The outcome of social reaction on the deviant's further action, this includes the individual's decisions to respond to sanctions.

  2. Assess sociological explanations of social class differences in crime rates

    Hughes and Langan (2001) attributed this to four main factors; * Low visibility; corporate crime is shielded from the public gaze, it is privatized, in contrast to street crimes * Complexity; they are often difficult to unravel as they involve many different institutions, it is hard to pinpoint blame *

  1. Free essay

    Assess sociological explanations of the different crime rates of men and women.

    These biological explanations therefore provide a challenge to some of the other theories discussed in this essay, which, instead, assume ones' desire to commit crime are shaped and determined by social influences. Indeed, when examining the difference between mens' and womens' crime rates, it can be all too easy to

  2. Compare and Contrast the Main Sociological Theories of Deviance.

    They are critical of the functionalist and subculture theories of deviance. Interactionists argue that human action is creative. We create our roles in relation to and adaptation to others. Normality is negotiated. Edwin Lemert argues that societal reaction is a 'cause' of deviance.

  1. Outline and Assess Sociological Approaches to Social Control Within Crime and Deviance

    Police officers often patrol these areas as this reflects the interests of the ruling groups. Lea and Young describe this as military-style policing, which is characterised by the use of large numbers of police officers patrolling an area in vehicles, using advanced technology, such as surveillance, for information gathering.

  2. Outline and asses sociological explanations of gender differences in the pattern of crime

    Also, men are more likely to be extroverted than women, giving explanation for higher male crime rates. Although, this has been criticised for being too deterministic, he appears to be suggesting that all single mothers are in some way criminal.

  1. Outline and Assess Sociological Explanations of Gender Differences in Crime Rates.

    We can see from this information why sociologists ignore female crime, but why exactly do women show up little in the crime statistics? Some people argue that it is because women do actually commit less crime than men do. Steven Box in 1981 reviewed self-report studies in Britain and the

  2. Using Item A and elsewhere, assess different sociological explanations of suicide

    Later positivist approaches from Gibbs and Martin, have criticised Durkheim?s typology, because integration is hard to define and therefore hard to conceptualise and measure, and therefore sought to define it as a situation where there are stable and long lasting relationships, which happens when there is status integration, for example

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work