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Bernstein Speech patterns and intelligence

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Introduction

Bernstein - Speech Patterns Since speech is an important medium of communication and learning, attainment levels in schools may be related to differences in speech patterns. Bernstein distinguished two patterns of speech * Restricted code - this is a kind of shorthand speech which uses short, simple and often unfinished sentences. Users of the code have so much in common that there is no need to make meanings explicit in speech. Meanings are more likely to be conveyed by gesture and tone of voice. Members of the working class are usually limited to the use of the restricted code. ...read more.

Middle

tend to be less rigid, people are treated as individuals and decisions are reached by negotiation * In working class families and in manual work, relationships are based on a clear hierarchy and little discussion is needed. Bernstein believed that the middle classes could switch between codes however working class were only able to use the restricted code. As formal education is conducted in terms of an elaborated code, working class children are placed at a disadvantage. Intelligence The tripartite system allocated an individual to one of three types of school largely on the basis of their performance in the 11+ intelligence test. ...read more.

Conclusion

General agreement that intelligence is due to the genes individuals inherit from parents and the environment they grow up in. Gillborn and Youdell - the new IQism- They argue that the idea of ability has now replaced that of intelligence but is used in the same way. Research in two London schools suggested that teachers thought children had largely fixed abilities. They concentrated on children who were borderline for achieving 5 grace Cc in GCSE's because it affected the school's league table results (The A-C economy). Black and working class children tended to be perceived as low ability and few were thought to have potential for 5 GCSE's so they were held back in the education system. ...read more.

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