• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

"Compare and contrast modernisation theory and dependency theory as explanations of development and under-development"

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

"Compare and contrast modernisation theory and dependency theory as explanations of development and under-development" The two theories, modernisation and dependency both give valid and just explanations for development and underdevelopment. There is a notable likeness in them both but there are also many differences and neither escape criticisms. Modernisation theory was before dependency theory and was developed in the 1950/60s; the theory is based on 4 main assumptions. Western societies are the most advanced in terms of technological, social and political terms, countries go through a series of stages on their route to becoming advanced, this path is a 'natural' form of development and there must be something preventing them from doing this and finally, these underdeveloped nations can advance without an changes taking place in the finance and trading patterns of the capitalist world. The modernisation theory is politically conservative as it sees nations being undeveloped because they lack the qualities that developed nations have, this is compared with the dependency theory who see this underdevelopment due to the exploitation of advanced nations. ...read more.

Middle

Theorists like Rostow also accounted internal factors as lack of development e.g. investment, science and technology, unlike dependency theory which concerns itself with external factors, to the less developed societies being considered. As well as passing through the above five stages Rostow believes that all countries need to concentrate on industrialisation and the use of advanced technology to develop. Its concern with technology has led to one criticism, that the modernisation is too technologically deterministic, it believes that changes in technology will lead to changes in the rest of society. A critic of the Modernisation theory Kiely criticised the theory in a few ways, it's assumption that developing from a traditional into a modern society escapes all problems and only requires more investment, that modern societies do not have problems e.g. America was seen as a meritocracy which is untrue in the case of black Americans and that modernity does not just solves problems but also creates them. ...read more.

Conclusion

There are normally operated via local agents in capitals of the third world, these capitals are the satellites. This means that they are national metropolises and they, like the international metropolises, exploit the other local satellites and this process keeps on going until the poor peasant is finally exploited by their local landlord. For true development Frank believes that this chain must be broken, unlike we have seen in the Modernisation theory links with international metropolis aren't at all beneficial but harmful and that supporters of the Modernisation theory tend to be the Western governments and companies themselves. This theory gives us a great contrast to that of the modernisation theory and does explain much of the interlocking in world economy. However, his solution of under-development, isolation, does not seem to produce any better results as seen from a number of countries like Brazil and Nicaragua. A second criticism is from modernization theorists, who point out that countries like South Korea and Taiwan who have been industrialized have in fact become developed and affluent within the world economy. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification essays

  1. Critically discuss the theories of modernisation and under-development.

    As a simple example, think of the last 2008 Olympics. Because of global television links some of the sports are now watched by millions worldwide. Marx believed direct expressions of underlying economic organisation, quite different types of political order may exist in societies that have similar production systems.

  2. Corrupt Societies

    by Philip K. Dick addressed problems in a corrupt society. In one world the firemen didn't put out fires they actually started them outside of the homes of people who were caught reading books. The books were seen as a problem and made people hostile and gave them wicked ideas.

  1. Assess the argument that rather than eliminating poverty, the Welfare State has created a ...

    a response to their perception of hopelessness in realising these ideals (Ellison et al, 2003). Elliot Liebow (1967) studied the life and culture of black street corner men. He argued that the habits of the members of the group, such as blowing money on a weekend of drinking, are reactions to their knowledge of their situation.

  2. Did the development of capitalism alter women's work opportunities in Europe 1780-1900?

    Who are we to generalise on the motives of individual women? Yet I would say that rather than the emergence of new opportunity it was simply the old factor of economic necessity that forced women to seek work outside of the home.

  1. Compare and contrast two sociological theories

    M, Holborn. M, 2000, Themes and Perspectives of Sociology). Parsons, Comte and Durkheim all made contributions to the development of this theory. Comte is generally regarded as one of the founding fathers of the ?positivist philosophy? (scientific explanation of the social world)

  2. Biological and Social Constructionist explanations of Gender development

    Leading on from gender and gender roles, we come to Masculinity and Femininity which are social constructions that are linked to cultural, historical, political and social aspects of gender relations. Masculinity is defined as the physical, behavioural, mental and emotional traits believed to be characteristics of males, as defined by the society or culture.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work