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AS and A Level: Crime & Deviance
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Top five crime and deviance theoretical viewpoints
- 1 Functionalism – small amounts of crime are inevitable and in fact crime has some functions for society (Durkheim); higher amounts of crime and deviance may be the result of anomie (Durkheim) or strain (Merton).
- 2 Marxism – the working class DO NOT necessarily commit more crime than the ruling class; corporate crime and white collar crime are underrepresented in crime figures (Croall); the crimes the working class carry out can be justified as part of a political struggle against capitalism (Box).
- 3 Left Realism – crime in working class areas should be considered carefully as the working class are over represented as victims; crime occurs if people suffer relative deprivation, marginalization (social, political and economic) and live in areas with deviant subcultures (Lea and Young).
- 4 Right Realism – People carry out crimes when the benefits outweigh the costs (Clarke); Single parent families often produce criminal or deviant offspring (Murray); zero tolerance policing would improve crime rates (Wilson).
- 5 Feminism – women are often excluded and ignored in discussions about crime (Heidensohn); women are often victims of crime and that issue needs consideration (Smart); women are increasingly committing crime.
Deviance in Society A person would be considered to be acting deviantly in society if they are violating what the significant social norm in that particular culture
The most knowledge acquired for why people act deviantly is from the sociological perspective. There is need for more research, if possible, in the psychological and biological perspectives, but there is a lot more known in the sociological viewpoint. The reality that the definition of deviant behaviour is considered different by everyone makes it complicated and unknown if a truly accurate answer can ever be found (Pfuhl 18). This is why this topic is important to the study of sociology. Sociologists have more information, and therefore may be closer to finding the cause. For this reason, my main focus in this paper is at the sociological stand point of deviance with some explanations from psychologists and biologists.
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REVISION - CRIME, PUNISHMENT AND PROTEST INTRODUCTION Crime, Punishment and Protest covers a period of more than 2500 years. Although you will not need to remember
If they did not, various sanctions could be taken to ensure conformity - if serious enough, those who broke rules were expelled from the group. However, as groups were small and the number of rules were few, all members were soon able to learn what they were - even if writing had been invented, there would have been no need to write them down. As societies became larger and more complex, the rules became more formal and set out what were regarded as crimes.
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On this Website Durkheim let us know that crime occur has natural day to day occurrences that helps us discover ourselves and think ahead on coming challenges to attain our oriented goal. The relation between the yearly number of crimes and the population, tended to decline, it might be believe that crime, while still normal, is tending to lose this character of normality. Statistics enable us to follow the course of criminality. It has everywhere increase. Crime consider to occur as a function of the way society is integrated and its has basis in social factors.
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All of these historians have sought to relate crime and the control of crime to specific economic, social, and political context; and all have acknowledged that crime is something defined by law, and that the law was changed and shaped by human institutions. To analyise the question fully I have identified the different areas of thinking throughout the Criminological spectrum. These are the classical school of thinking, the positivist school of thinking, and the labelling perspective - concluding whether criminal's act on the basis of free will or whether they are propelled in to criminal activity.
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Improved street lighting recorded better results in a parallel study. CCTV systems can be a valuable weapon in tackling crime in certain situations; but we need clearer controls in law so that the data they gather isn't misused to intrude on people's privacy or infringe their rights. Despite its vast financial commitments to CCTV, this Government has consistently failed to address this issue. There remains no remotely adequate regulation of CCTV systems in law. The danger of misuse of cameras and the pictures they take has been illustrated already both by research and by court cases.
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However every one does not share the same commitment to the collective sentiments of society. At this modern time people time people are more individualistic and not everyone is reluctant to conform. Toonies was not a functionalist but he was a supporter of Durkheim. He had the theories of Gemeinshaft (community) and Gesselleshaft (society). He believed that prior to industrialisation peoples were part of smaller communities and there were higher stronger sanctions against crime and deviance. Now there is just society as a whole and the sanctions are less strong.
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Lemert drew a distinction between primary and secondary deviance through a study of stuttering amongst a Native American nation. He observed that public oratory was important among the nation the displayed high levels of stuttering. When young boys showed any speech defect parents reacted with such concern that the child became worried about it and more nervous causing him to stutter. Therefore the primary deviance of the speech defect was not that important, it was the effect of the worried parents, labelling the child, causing the nervousness, leading to the secondary deviance of stuttering. Thus showing that if people are labelled in a certain way and treated accordingly it has greater consequences than the original deviance.
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Punishment is difficult to apply in the workplace. Explain why, what might be done to overcome such difficulty and identify what alternatives to punishment exist
where he receives a public dressing down and is showered with harsh words. However the problem here is that it decreases the likelihood of behavior. Punishment can play a useful role in suppression of behavior rather than teaching the correct behavior. Taking an example of an employee who is reprimanded for taking unauthorized breaks at work. His behavior might stop when the manager is visible but the threat of punishment vanishes when the manager is no longer present. The quote "when the cat is away the mice are at play", relates to punishment is only effective when the threat of punishment is present.
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One of the most important and most featured settings of CSI: Crime Scene Investigation is the headquarters for the CSI team and the labs. In this setting many iconographic features of the police genre subcategory can be found
Unlike many other crime shows, CSI: Crime Scene Investigation has several stock characters. The first of these is the night shift team supervisor for the Las Vegas CSI unit (Gil Grissom), then there is the blood spatter analyst who was second-in-command for the night shift for four seasons (Catherine Willows). An easygoing and friendly former college baseball player (Nick Stokes) is also a stock character alongside a Las Vegas native and audio/visual analyst (Warrick Brown). Also alongside these is the head county coroner (Dr Albert Robbins) and a young lab technician who idolizes Grissom (Greg Sanders).
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My hypothesis is 'peoples fears of crime is not justified' I plan to find out if people are more afraid of crime than they should be and whether they are correctly informed about the rates of crime. I will also try
There is not much that can go wrong with this method of research apart from some newspapers have a habit of giving a biased or prejudiced opinion and you have to be careful with how much of it is true. Books are usually accurate but I will have to make sure it is a fairly recent book so the facts and figures are up to date. * I might try to do an interview, another form of quantitative methodology. I am not sure if I can find any one to inter view but if I can it would be a good method of research because they would be informed on this subject.
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'Examine developments in biological research into criminality and discuss whether our scientific understanding is sufficiently advanced to permit the safe use of these ideas in society today.'
According to Havelock Ellis there is a law in medieval England which stated 'if two persons fell under suspicion for a crime, the uglier or more deformed was to be regarded as more probably guilty than the other one. This is unfair. Who can help it for the way they look? Its not there fault they look that way. This is not a safe scientific understanding because people can be mistaken as criminals. Lombroso viewed criminals as suffering from a depravity, to conclude this he experimented with brains of the dead.
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The primary tasks of the Crime Scene Examiner is to photograph or video record the area of the crime, search and recover any forensic evidence such as DNA, fibres or fingerprints. This information will again be presented in court. The scene preservation should be maintained by anyone entering the crime scene, as it will help to prevent the loss of evidence by contamination such as finger prints, the taking away of evidence for example fibres sticking to the bottom of a shoe, and the moving of evidence, this can be as simple as closing a window.
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What institutional problems and social concerns were associated with the establishment and rise of the "new police"?
associated with the establishment of the "new Police", therefore large part of this essay will be about the social concerns, it will show what happened, and why it was a social concern in other words the reasons why, the new police formed and also large part will be about the institutional problems that the new police faced. Also this essay will largely focus on London and the Metropolitan police, this is because it is seen the history of policing began in London by the Metropolitan police.
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* Community Punishment and Rehabilitation Order (previously the obtuse but at least not farcical 'combination order') * Curfew order * Attendance centre order * Supervision order Community Rehabilitation Order This order involves being supervised by a probation officer. This can be experienced as penalising offenders in many ways including; * Having to face up to the crimes they have committed and the changes in which they need to make in their behaviour. * The time the order takes. However, the court may include additional requirements to the order which could make it even harder for the offender.
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In particular, adolescent males from lower socioeconomic status families regularly commit more violence than males from higher socioeconomic status levels. Social isolation and economic stress are just two main products of poverty (in the lead up to juvenile crime) in adolescent males, which has long been associated with a number of issues such as disorganization, dilapidation, deterioration, and despair. The way police patrol poverty-stricken areas like an occupying army only reinforces the idea that society is the enemy whom they should hate.
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Initially, the duties of the police were not the tasks that we would associate with the police of today as they had to carry out many other ordinary, tedious tasks such as lighting the night lamps, calling out the time, watching for fires, along with many other public services which they had taken over from the watchmen before them. The police forces of London were divided into different divisions, where there were four inspectors and sixteen sergeants, each division managed by a superintendent.
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Closing in on a more biological mechanism Mednick and his colleagues claim to have discovered a pattern of inherited autonomic nervous system (ANS) characteristics amongst known offenders. They say that criminal offenders tend to have an ANS that is less sensitive to environmental stimuli than non-offenders. People with such personalities are slower to respond to external signals and thus are greatly inhibited. In this state of mind, it would not be difficult to express antisocial behaviour. Considering these biological claims, it would seem that criminality originates and expresses itself in the genes.
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Popular assumptions.... 1. Crime is everywhere...But super CCTV will come and save the day: Why? Because it works... 'crimes are increasingly caught on video tape' it's used in evidence to convict....its obvious...that people will not commit crime in front of the cameras! It helps the police to be more efficient. Its all encompassing. 2. It is democratic.... 'owned' by the public, for the good of the public.... This is because many public area systems are run, not by the police, but by local authorities.
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Third, the widespread support for punishment rest on the important societal goal served by it. It is the most effective way to protect society (its structures and individuals) from offenders. Therefore, crime is a crime and it needs pain not relief. Punishment is justifiable because of its deterrent effect, which protects the right of innocent people by discouraging premeditated criminals. It creates fear among criminals. They think twice before committing any offence as of risk along with it. This logical inference is fully supported by anecdotal evidence. For example, some robbers in the U.S states that they don't use guns while robbery because of death penalty risk if shooting occurs.
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One of the main sources of information is police reports, which may be believed to be quite reliable. However this isn't entirely true as not all crime is reported to the police, for various reasons. One, the loss from the burglary may be too little and it isn't worth reporting it. Two, people have a lack of confidence in the police, so they feel nothing would get done about their claim. Three, People feel good enough to take matters of the law into their own hands and try and find the burglar themselve.
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Using the example of violent crime show the strengths and weaknesses of police recorded crime figures.
According to the Home Office the BCS report "gives a better indication of trends in crime over time because it is unaffected by changes in levels of reporting to the police, and in police reporting practices" (Home Office 2004) One weakness that is immediately obvious is that in terms of violent crime victims may not be willing to discuss their experiences if they have not already gone to the police as there are more psychological effects surrounding violent crime in comparison to crimes such as theft, particularly vehicle and property theft.
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My hypothesis I expect to find that the official crime statistics in my area do not reflect the actual crime rate. I expect this because it is obvious that not all crime is reported to the police. Many people do not report crime
This then supports my hypothesis as this would mean that most crime in my area is not reported. I predict that: . Most crime in my area goes unreported . Most people in my area are victims of petty crime rather than serious crime . Crime statistics in my area will be lower than the national average . Most people will feel that the police could do more to help increase reported crime. Background reading When a crime is reported to the police they may record it.
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This quote showed that them monks believed that women tended to have more sexual partners than men. The source also claims women have "slippery tongues" implying that they tend to expose themselves easily by simple gossiping. The source cleary agrees with the idea that witchcraft was a female crime as it also says, "a greater number of witches is found in the fragile feminine sex than among men". This source is also intersting as it is written by two monk, who ofcourse are members of the church. The source therfore shows the view of the church and how christian writings were very mysogenistic.
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It has been claimed that hate crimes are an 'Orwellian response to prejudice'. How convincing are the justifications provided for such laws and what are the chief objections against them?
There are thousands and thousands of other hate crimes that occur behind these headlines. In 2003/2004 the British crime survey recorded 200,000 racist incidents. This large number of incidents provides evidence that there is a need for some sort of action to stop these crimes from happening. Britain differs with the United States in that there is no legal term of 'hate crime', instead it is an offence under racially or religiously aggravated offences within the Crime and Disorder Act 1998 and the Anti-Terrorism Act 2001.
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Charles Booth's analysis of Whitechapel found that 2% of the East End was homeless; 4% were street urchins and the very poor; 12% were poverty stricken, and a disturbing 55% of children died before the age of five. There were also foreigners such as Jews who had fled the Pogroms in Russia and Poles expelled from Prussia. The general law enforcement of the 18th century differed from that of the 19th century. During the 18th century, the law and order was upheld in each parish by means of a parish constable who was not paid for one year and worked in conjunction with the local Justice of Peace.
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