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AS and A Level: Crime & Deviance
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Top five crime and deviance theoretical viewpoints
- 1 Functionalism – small amounts of crime are inevitable and in fact crime has some functions for society (Durkheim); higher amounts of crime and deviance may be the result of anomie (Durkheim) or strain (Merton).
- 2 Marxism – the working class DO NOT necessarily commit more crime than the ruling class; corporate crime and white collar crime are underrepresented in crime figures (Croall); the crimes the working class carry out can be justified as part of a political struggle against capitalism (Box).
- 3 Left Realism – crime in working class areas should be considered carefully as the working class are over represented as victims; crime occurs if people suffer relative deprivation, marginalization (social, political and economic) and live in areas with deviant subcultures (Lea and Young).
- 4 Right Realism – People carry out crimes when the benefits outweigh the costs (Clarke); Single parent families often produce criminal or deviant offspring (Murray); zero tolerance policing would improve crime rates (Wilson).
- 5 Feminism – women are often excluded and ignored in discussions about crime (Heidensohn); women are often victims of crime and that issue needs consideration (Smart); women are increasingly committing crime.
London needed saving with slight rises in homicide and major rises in robbery and theft. London was getting more and more plagued by crime then ever before. Compared to the other forces guarding London the Metropolitan police were minute. The founding of the new police force was said to have made English Common Law more humane and efficient. More than two-hundred crimes that carried the death penalty were removed from the legal list. In 1861, the number was reduced to just four, those being, murder, treason, piracy and destruction of arsenals.
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What contribution has Labelling Theory made to our understanding of crime and deviancy and what are the policy implications of
There are many labelling theorists. Lemet (1951) said to be the founder of original labelling theory or ''societal reaction'' approach, distinguishes between primary and secondary deviance, whereas another theorist Becker (1963) among many who has contributed to our understanding of crime and deviancy, is considered to be the founder of labelling theory claimed social groups create deviance by making rules to set boundaries of what is and isn't deviant, and then labelling particular individuals as deviants. A strength of labelling theory approach to deviance is that it not only concentrates on the social reaction to deviance committed by individuals, as well as concentrating on the interaction processes leading to the labelling, these being two important elements of the theory.
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As crime statistics are compiled in two ways, or maybe more, the public do get affected, as they do not know what figures to accept or believe. It is obvious that people would like to believe that the statistics, which show the least amount of crime
figures, which questions people in England and Wales about their experiences as victims. Neither system is entirely reliable. The Home Office research, for example, show that out of every 100 crimes, only 50 will be reported and around 33 recorded. The Observer poll (2003) shows that 19% of those mugged and 14% of those violently assaulted failed to report the crime, in comparison to the BCS who offers a more reliable measurement of some crimes, such as theft. A person may not report a theft of an old, cheap car but would talk to a researcher about it.
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How does positive criminology differ from classical criminology in its approach to understanding criminology nad responding to criminals.
The new ideas of '' enlightenment'' philoshefers were Montisque, Rasseau, Voltaire, Thomas Aquins and Locke. The fundermental principles of the classical school are made up of four main things. These are, free will, rationality, self-intrest and responsibility. Free will - People thought that god made people commit the crime, the classical school thought that people are not forced into commiting crimes. They believe that its our choice to behave in a criminal or non criminal way. We have a range of choices, and it is up to us if we want to break the law.
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"The planned introduction of identity cards proves, if further proof be needed, that this government is committed to the crime control model of criminal justice"
With time and need, these fundamental rights slowly disintegrated and what emerged is known as the crime control model. A criminal justice system that is based on a 'crime control' model would not prioritise these features at all, but would instead be concerned with tampering with the accused's right to silence, limiting judge's discretion, increasing police powers, curbing legal aid and abandoning trials by jury. The crime control model if deeply understood has shades of arbitrary rule. Firstly, let's comprehend the state of crime in the U.K. The name a few types of crime which are encountered by the Home Office, the Security Service (MI5), the Police and other agencies are robbery, Alcohol related crime, Burglary, Business related crime,
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Background The first context I have used is www.nettlesworth.durham.sch.uk/time/victorian/vschool.html. The main conclusions of this article are that children were scared of their teachers because they were very strict. The reasons for the came were rude conduct, leaving the playground without permission, sulkiness, answering back, missing Sunday prayers, throwing ink pellets and being late. Pupils got the dunce hat for not learning quickly enough. This is relevant to my enquiry because I have found out how the children got punished, what they got punished for and how different it was from today.
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that some form of identification and action must be done against the perpetrator. It follows that all crime are, by definition, deviant behaviour, but not all forms of deviance are criminal4. In the pre-industrial days, societies were small. Social organisation was kept by closely-shared norms and values. These relationships tended to be close and personal and it served the basis for social order. As societies expanded due to the economic demands posed by the Industrial Revolution, Durkheim said that the moral ties which bounded society together were weakened.
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Women also have a hard time too. One woman said that "the cells were like rabbit hutches and you ate with your knees touching the door. It also takes away what little responsibility a person had and gives them a deeper irresponsibility. It erodes an already small self esteem and leaves a humiliated, broken sense of self. You would not like this, treat everyone the same. Which is taught in the book of Hebrews 13:3. "Keep in mind those who are in prison although you were in prison with them".
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Its an evolutionary philosophy that attempts to refocus the essence of policing that tries to do two things: first bring police officers and citizens together in neighborhoods, second give the police responsibility for solving problems in the community (Allender 2004). This new policing ideal incorporates into two elements: community partnership and problem solving. These two elements are the cores of the policing strategy for the future of large communities (inner cities) and other high crime areas. With those two elements, community policing adds a critical, proactive element to the traditional reactive role of the police.
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To what extent do official crime statistics provide a realisable estimate of the amount of crime committed in England and Wales
The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 (PACE) was introduced to protect suspects. With regards to Crime and the society, there is no doubt that crime and fear of crime are consistently high on the list of public concerns, and statistics also suggest that crime has risen over the last 100 years. Even criminologist Robert Reiner suggests that "we have got used to thinking of crime, like the weather and pop music, as something that is always getting worse". This could be due to the fact that we see and hear more media reports of crime, mainly through newspaper headlines, articles, TV, books on 'true crime', 'mind of the criminal' and most especially tabloid headlines.
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The police themselves had very little training. Most training was military. Therefore we can learn that murder investigation was not the expertise of the police force at the time. The theme of the metropolitan police at the time was prevention of crime, rather than detection of crime. Thus, the whitechapel murders occurred in a time where investigation of homicide was still in its youth. The force was not only improperly trained, but they were also vastly outnumbered. Statistics showed that in 1885 the population of London stood at 5,255,069 people. The police force stood at 13,319 officers of all ranks.
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Today, perhaps never as vividly before, crime stands at the centre of public consciousness. The mass media serve up a regular diet of stories of rising crime, vulnerable victims and callous offenders. According to Naylor (2001) the public persistently voice their fears and anxieties about crime in opinion surveys and in official government studies prioritising their concern with the issue. The success of the police in dealing with the crime problem in general comes under ever more scrutiny, and the effectiveness and rigour of the criminal justice and penal systems generate never-ending controversy.
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* The innocent must be acquitted even if this means acquitting some guilty people in the process. A type of criminal justice ideal..as is based on formal objective judgements based upon known rules...Ideal that inequality should not exist. In the next three perspectives we see that subjective judgements can come into play: Crime control: Associated with attitudes if the police * The aim of the criminal court is first and foremost to repress criminal conduct, and is thus a guardian of law and order rather than of impartial justice.
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The police's main job at the time was crime prevention and keeping law and order. Their method of doing that was basically just being on the street with the assumption that the criminal would rather not commit a crime when there was a policeman around. This method was quite effective and helped to prevent petty theft (not very serious crimes)
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As the economy of the country changed, so did the available work which meant more and more families, were forced to move to other areas looking for work. This caused a lot of urban areas to turn into zones of transmission, where people would move into a poor area looking for work, and those that were successful would work hard and then move on to a better area with better housing. Unfortunately, this meant that the less successful families stayed within one area causing an ever-growing state of physical deterioration.
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To what extent can orthodox theories on crime and deviance explain crime and deviance in the Caribbean?
The usual victims of unemployment are the young lower- class males. Robert Merton states that in every society there are those who share cultural goals for success where people usually work to achieve wealth and material possessions. People sometimes break the rules to achieve success if there is no legitimate opportunity structure and this in turn creates a situation of anomie. Norms will no longer affect behaviour and deviance is encouraged. Individuals respond to anomie in different ways and their reaction will be shaped by their position in the social structure.
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Criminologists have used differing methods (like victimization surveys) to try to decrease the amount of unknown or unrecorded crime. In many cases, a crime will either be unrecorded or unreported. Such crimes remain anonymous and so would not be counted in statistical data relating to crime. 'The dark figure of crime' is the term used to describe this. Criminologists have attempted to analyse and attempt to assess the size of the so-called dark figure of crime. The only way thus far has been to estimate or guess the figure, but the estimated figures differ between criminologists, although they all agree that much of it goes undetected, many estimate over 50%.(Williams.K,2001)
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To what extent would sociologists agree that official criminal statistics by themselves, do not give an accurate picture of the extent of crime.
From this a clear picture is created and therefore the statistics can tell the truth. Although official crime statistics may appear to show the whole picture about crimes committed, they need to be treated with concern. Crime recorded by the police represents only a biased picture of the total amount of crime committed. Many problems begin when considering whether the official criminal statistics tell us the truth or not. I will explore these issues within my essay. Furthermore the official criminal statistics don't always tell the truth because there are lots of crimes which are not reported by people for various reasons, so the police are not aware.
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One more question was added in 1870. "No great amount of time was spent on the compilation of the statistics of criminals for these three censuses, and the published facts were so brief that even the whereabouts of those for 1850 and 1860 seem not to be generally known," Louis Newton Robinson, an assistant professor of economics at Swarthmore College wrote. (Robinson, 1969, p. 17). In 1880 there was a shift. The census became more in depth, but still little attention was paid to compilation and analysis of judicial criminal statistics.
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Easy access to a good education should be available to prisoners despite their criminal status. This is because the option of further education not only gives prisoners something constructive to do with their time in jail but also prevents them of learnin
You fight for your right to further your education through tertiary study, however you are told there is a very limited possibility of being granted this opportunity. Criminal access to tertiary study is extremely limited and difficult to claim. This is due to the societal belief that criminals should not be rewarded for an act against humanity. Many prisoners admit they have learnt their lesson and look towards their future as a life without crime. However, these criminals have great difficulty in supporting themselves once out of prison and consequently re-offend and find themselves back behind bars.
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It is no exaggeration to say that in the majority of cases, the law enforcement officer who protects and searches a crime scene plays a significant role in determining whether physical evidence will be used in solving or prosecuting violent crimes. Documenting a crime scene and its conditions can include directly recording brief details such as lighting, furniture, fingerprints, and other valuable information. Certain evidence if not collected right away can easily be lost, destroyed or ruined. The range of investigations can also expand to the fact of dispute in such cases as suicide or self-defense.
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This was explained in the new police instructions published in the Times newspaper in September 1829, (in Muncie and McLaughlin 2002 Ch 1 p.28) which stated, "it should be understood from the outset that the object to be obtained is the prevention of crime". [and] .."the preservation of public tranquillity" This type of policing was considered essential to protect law-abiding citizens from the disorderly underclass such the poor, beggars, drunks and the homeless predominantly in urban areas. It was also felt that it would also provide the opportunity to detect crime if certain areas were targeted.
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The purpose of this report is to present the problems and results of an investigation associated with graffiti in Fruitgrove, especially along the train station
It is important to note that one of the limitations of this research was the lack of time to invite the whole neighbourhood to complete a survey, especially the younger age groups, who might have a different opinion compared with the older age groups about this issue. 2.0 CAUSES OF GRAFFITI There are two major causes of why graffiti is drawn. Graffiti is drawn because the vandals want the satisfaction of/gain more: -->Thrilling risks -->Attention and recognition 2.1 Thrilling risks Some people enjoy the thrill of taking risks, and may become graffitists just for the excitement of it, since there are two parts to the thrill.
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The author supports this further in the first line of paragraph three: "Fear of crime is not crime. It is fear." The author then starts to verify that the media takes advantage of fear by saying, in the third last sentence of paragraph three, "The politician plays on public...in his protection". He then begins to expand his point by conducting a survey, which is called the MORI poll. In paragraph four, second and third sentences he states "This is not some police...This is a measure of something real". The author clarifies a rational link connecting fear and crime in paragraph six, in the last sentence, where he finishes the thought by stating, "If crime falls, fear should fall."
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