• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Crime is rapidly increasing in this day and age, however, thanks to the increasing technology we can now detect and prevent crime, using forensic techniques, which I shall detail in this essay.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Forensic Science Crime is rapidly increasing in this day and age, however, thanks to the increasing technology we can now detect and prevent crime, using forensic techniques, which I shall detail in this essay. All contact leaves a trace; this is the basis of the policy taken by all forensic scientists, these traces have to be collected, and then examined, however care and precautions (protective suits and gloves etc) have to be taken to ensure that evidence or traces are not contaminated or damaged. There are two approaches to collecting evidence; there is the cautious approach of all visible areas and then the more vigorous search of concealed areas. When scientists are trying to detect poisons or toxins in the body (e.g alcohol), the laboratory methods they use are categorised as follows; physical tests, crystal tests, chemical spot tests, spectrophotometric tests, chromatographic tests. If the toxin were known to be alcohol, the collection and analysis would take place simultaneously, using a breathalyser test. A modern breathalyser is the Lion Alcometer converts the chemical energy in ones breath to electrical energy, an older method would be the "tube and bag", this would depend on the break down of potassium dichromate by the alcohol in a drivers breath. However this is more of an on the spot test, for drugs, other toxins and a more detailed analysis of alcohol, urine or blood tests will be done. Gas chromatography will tell how much alcohol is in blood or urine. ...read more.

Middle

Several methods are used in the collecting of fibre evidence - visual searches, searches using alternative light sources and searches with additional magnification. Recovery of evidence should use the least intrusive technique practicable. This could include picking, taping, scraping, or vacuuming. Clothing or other items having adhering fibres should be wrapped carefully if being sent to the laboratory. When examining fibres, the forensic scientist may use a special microscope called a comparison microscope. If the fibre is a colourless fibre, like polyester, melting point and refractive index determinations might be used. For man made fibres, analytical chemical techniques. However, once it is found that the sample from the crime scene matches the sample from the suspect, the reliability has to be assessed, e.g. if the garment the fibre came from was from a chain store, it would have to be taken in conjunction with other evidence. One of the most important discoveries in the history of forensic science was the discovery that no two people, not even twins, have the same fingerprints. Since this discovery, rules of classification have been layed down, (Sir Francis Galton identified 3 basic patterns - arches, loops and whorls) and crime detection has soared. Fingerprint evidence is very fragile and must be collected and analysed with care, there are 5 different methods that can be used to collect latent fingerprints. The first is dusting, this method is best used on non-porous surfaces, it involves powder being sprinkled over the place where the fingerprint is suspected to be, the powder will stick to the sweat and oil, and the fingerprint is revealed. ...read more.

Conclusion

When analysing pollen, a sample from a known geographical location is compared to a sample from the suspected source. However, factors have to be taken into consideration e.g. how the pollen is dispersed, what pollens are released in which seasons. Soil is found frequently on soles of shoes, clothing, wheel wells of vehicles etc. and most soil analysis consists of comparing a suspect sample with the sample from the scene of the crime, the factors monitered would be soil sedimentation analysis, pH measurements, mineral contenst, colour and density, further comparison can be made by detecting any pesticides or herbicides present. The "Universal system" assigns a number to each tooth - starting with the upper right (third) molar - 1 - and finishing with the lower right (third) molar - 32. Information is also recorded about the five visible surfaces of each tooth, so a detailed dental record(odontogram) is built up. Durability of teeth makes them an ideal means of identification for the forensic scientist as they are often the only means of identification after fires. Features of teeth can identify the criminal when bite marks are left at the scene of the crime. For successful identification of remains, post mortem and ante mortem records must be available. Teeth can also yield information a persons age. Once forensic experts have carried out as much analysis as possible they must construct a report that is admissable in the court of law, they sometimes make mistakes, and they evidence they come up with is not always 100% accurate, however, it can help make or break a case. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Crime & Deviance section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Crime & Deviance essays

  1. The purpose of crime scene investigation is to help establish what happened at the ...

    One of the first things an officer should do once he gets to the crime scene is to take control and secure the scene as quickly as possible. This is to prevent anyone from ruining evidence and to keep unauthorized person or persons out of the area such as the media, the public or anyone who doesn't belong.

  2. Criminal Investigation Procedures

    The suspect is known to be violent when drugs are involved which may fit in with the threatening note found at the crime scene. As the suspect was a close associate to the victim this may indicate that the victim in fact let the suspect in as thought.

  1. Outline and asses the different ways of measuring crime

    Nonetheless, even with a confidential survey, the Hawthorne effect could sill apply. The sample may still be ashamed of the crimes they have committed or fear comeuppances and omit certain details, or perhaps the sample may talk big of their misdemeanours.

  2. Punishment and Prisons. This essay shall describe the changes in the methods of punishment ...

    that the change in how we punish offenders has been a very gradual process. When executions were public they were a major 'social' events, and many would gather to the place of the execution to get a good view. However, it eventually became recognised that violent criminality increased in the

  1. An analysis of the methods used to effectively tackle crime

    Which is extremely effective because if for example if an area is prone to high burglary or drug dealings by installing CCTV means that criminals are deterred from an area as they know they are being watched. * Tenants of housing associations and councils * Private owned property Media The

  2. ‘Discuss the use of alternative strategies of crime prevention and reduction.To illustrate your answer ...

    They say that if homes are so well protected as to prevent breaking in, then it is possible that the burglars will turn to robbing in the street to get their money. In this way, the crime has not been stopped, but simply displaced to another area (p27).

  1. What explanations have been suggested for occupational crime? Is it different from conventional ...

    Workers claim society forces them to do it. Hollinger and Clark, (1983:67), criticise the control theory contributing that "Many employees in various occupations have access to money or merchandise but do not steal". Hollinger and Clark point out that neither household income nor personal financial strains can amount to the predictors of an individual's likelihood to steal company property.

  2. Literature Review: The Impact of Heroin Prices on Robbery Trends

    Therefore, there is a distinct lack of literature and research available on whether a decrease in the price of heroin would cause a decline in burglary rates. Conclusion There are several problems with research in this field. Firstly, data on burglary and the price of heroin must be documented over a period of years.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work