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Criminal justice policy.

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Introduction

CRIMINAL JUSTICE POLICY CASE STUDY. SHAMMA SISPAL MANCHESTER METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY BA (HONS) CRIMINOLOGY & CONTEMPORARY CULTURE 2003/2004 YEAR 2 BIBLIOGRAPHY. * Crawford, A (1999). The Local Governance of Crime. Oxford University Press, England. * Crawford, A (1998). Crime Prevention and Community Safety. Longman Ltd, UK. * Graef, R (2001). Why Restorative Justice? Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation. London * Joyce, P (2001). Crime and the Criminal Justice System. Liverpool University Press. * Leishman, F (2000). Core Issues in Policing second edition. Dorset Press, Pearson Education Ltd. * Leng, R and Birch, D (2000). Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999. Blackstone Press Ltd, London. * Leng, R (1998) Blackstones Guide to the Crime and Disorder Act 1998. Blackstone Press Ltd. London * McEvoy (2002). The Introduction of Referral Orders into the Youth Justice System: second interim report. No. 23. London Home Office. * Miller, L (2001). The Politics of Community Crime Prevention. Ashgate Publishing Company, England. * Moxon, D (2001). An Explanatory Evaluation of Restorative Justice Schemes. Home Office. London. * Pitts, J (1999). Working with Young Offenders second edition. Macmillan Press Ltd, London. * Worrall, A (1997). Punishment in the Community. Longman Ltd, UK. * Wright, M (1996). Justice for Victims and Offenders- A Restorative Response to Crime. Waterside Press. Manchester. Websites * Crimereduction.gov.uk/crssummary_1.htm * Crimereduction.gov.uk/youth22.htm To what extent is restorative justice likely to benefit offenders and the victim referred to in the case study? ...read more.

Middle

The partnerships work to reduce crime and disorder in an area by establishing the levels of crime problems in that neighbourhood and consulting widely with the population of that area to make sure that the partnership's perception corresponds to that of local people. After surveying the local patterns and levels of crime, the next stage is to decide what they will do to eliminate the problems identified and prevent the crimes from reoccurring, in this case causing emotional and bodily harm to Mrs Mathers through physical attack. The aim is to advance the physical security of vulnerable targets through the introduction of techniques like surveillance (CCTV's), Neighbourhood Watch Schemes, increasing the number of street lights, injecting more money to recruit more police officers, and to pay for the expansion of the DNA database and invest in a new national communications system. These act as deterrents for youths who will think twice before committing crime and at the same time reducing peoples' fear of crime, all resulting in building a safer, more cohesive society. Much excellent partnership work has been done in many parts of the country for several years, but has so far been random. The partnerships provisions ensure that all communities will benefit from improvement which effective partnerships will have brought. Evaluate the potential effectiveness of using a Curfew Notice to prevent a recurrence of the crime suffered by Mrs Mathers. ...read more.

Conclusion

supports McEvoy's findings and confirms that 91% of all local panel members are white, when the majority of young offenders are of Afro-Caribbean origin. The figures continue, 69% of panel members are female, when 66% of the young offenders are male, over 50% of panel members were aged 40 years or more and employed in professional/managerial occupations, when unsurprisingly, the mass of young offenders are unemployed. This indicates that the members of the panel are vastly unrepresentative of the rest of the community. It appears that the concept of Youth Offender Panels is a contradiction in its own right, as it is not doing justice to the offenders in the way it should. A briefing paper by Ann McDermott, Crime Concern, states that the support and involvement of local residents is fundamental to the effective performance of YOPs. A strength of Youth Offender Panels is that they successfully reduce crime rates where juvenile delinquency is prominent. The young offenders become aware of the effects their behaviour has had on the community and endeavour to make improvements for everybody's welfare. Peter Joyce (2001) establishes, "young offenders would learn a valuable moral lesson through the YOP process", meaning it enables the offender to earn their acceptance back into the community and solve the damage and distress caused. This increases communities' self-confidence, in turn improving community cohesion and reducing the social exclusion of juveniles. Accordingly, the likelihood of reformed offenders committing crime again has decreased, after being accepted back into the community. ...read more.

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