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Critically discuss the theories of modernisation and under-development.

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Introduction

Critically discuss the theories of modernisation and under-development The concept of globalisation is one that has become widely used in debates in politics, business and the media over the past few years. A decade ago the term globalisation was relatively unknown. Today it seems to be on the tip of everyone's tongue. Globalisation refers to the fact we all increasingly live in one world, so that individuals, groups and nations become interdependent. According to Held, Goldblatt and Perraton "globalisation is an idea whose time has come... yet it (globalisation) lacks precise definition". Despite the imprecision of the term "globalisation" the use of the term, according to Held and McGrew, reflects increased interconnectedness in political, economic and cultural matters across the world creating a "shared social space". ...read more.

Middle

whole others are much more democratic for example, the United States, Britain or Sweden. The impact of science and technology both influence and are influenced by political and cultural factors scientific and technology development for example helped create modern forms of communication such as radio and television. Radio, television and other electronic media have also come to shape the how we think and feel about the world. The invention of writing for instance, allowed for the keeping of records, making possible increased control of material resources and development of large scale organisations. The free market does nothing to address re-distribution of wealth. It assumes that wealth will "trickle down" to the poor. The former British Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, once said "it is our job to glory in inequality and see that talents and abilities are given vent and expression for the benefit of all of us". ...read more.

Conclusion

A critical aspect of globalisation is that nature and power that multinational corporations, they account for over 33% of world output and 66% of world trade for example car manufactures who source their components from other countries. Nevertheless international businesses are still to a certain extent confined to their home territory, their businesses are nationally embedded and continue to operate as multinational rather than transatlantic companies. The globalisation and transformation from multinational to transatlantic has not fully occurred multinationals still have considerable economic and cultural power. The transformation affects the status quo in the sense that with the take over by multinational companies I.e. Wal-Mart, Tesco or BP results in wages being paid in new settings which are usually minimal, workers conditions and rights are poor e.g. Nike, Ralph Lauren and Adidas were paying as little as 13 cents. ?? ?? ?? ?? Chantella Shaban ...read more.

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