• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Demographic changes

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Since 1900 there have been vast and numerous changes to our countries demographic trends, these all fortunately have relevant and understandable explanations. Such changes include the growing population (births and fertility), mortality and life expectancy, ageing population and family size, reasons for the change in mortality and finally reasons for changes in fertility and theories as to why couples are conceiving fewer children. Firstly, the growing population, births and fertility. It is considerably amazing that from 1901 to mid-2006 the population of Britain had grown around 22.8 million (from 38.2 to 60.0 million). Migration has increased immensely, there are shockingly more people entering the country compared to the average number of natural change (difference between births and deaths). Births rates have changed drastically; according to statistics from 1901 the growth rate was 1%, now more towards the 21st century it has dropped to 0.25%. The head factor accounting for this is in fact natural change. An example to demonstrate this is that every year since 1901 (with the exception of 1976) there has been more births than deaths. Finally the total fertility rate has declined in the UK in 1900 was 3.5 children per woman, and in 2006 it was 1.84 children per woman, these figures indicate that the number of births per woman is on a low compared to the trends 100 years ago. ...read more.

Middle

Family size, which is in terms of definition, is self-explanatory, in Britain today the average number of children per family is two children and the percentage of women having there or more children has dropped. In the UK a rough and accurate indicator of family rate is TFR (total fertility rate), it is estimated that the TFR in 1900 was 3.5 children per woman, whereas the TFR in 2006 was 1.84, this has evidently changed due to various circumstances explained in the following paragraphs. Also childlessness has also risen; one in ten women in 1941 didn't have children in our society, compared to nearly 1 in 5 women in 1961. Fourthly, the demographic changes in mortality; they are focused on three main reasons, these include advances in medicine, welfare measures and nutrition and living standards. As previously described since 1830 to the present day there has been a massive decline in both infant and mortality rates. Some of the causes are the following; there have been remarkable advances in medicine; around 60% of the mortality rates from 1850 to 1970 was due to a decrease in infectious diseases. This extreme drop in deaths is mainly down to vaccinations, antibiotics and medical treatment; this all occurred during the first half of the 20th century. ...read more.

Conclusion

The 'risk' factor, which is that children impose on their parents lives, so by having them could impose on their freedom and could even put a strain on a couples relationship. The woman's view is also a huge influencing factor in the fertility rates, this includes expanding and occupational opportunities for women now to be more successful in the working and career climate, as women's paid employment rose from 50% to 76% in 1970 to 2000/05. The term 'childlessness' has changed, it used to mean that women who were childless suffered a loss, whereas now the preferred term is childfree as women now have more alternatives and incentives to live their own life instead of having the traditional duty of rearing children. In conclusion, there has been notable changes in the UK' sociological and demographical trends. The population size has increased extraordinarily, from a figure of 38.2 million to 60.6 million in a period of 105 years, which is mainly due to natural change. Actual numbers have fallen drastically since 1901. There has been a dramatic fall in infant mortality rates and life expectancy has increased, living standards have been raised. There has been a radical decline in family size and an increase in childlessness, and finally the UK is a far-reaching ageing population. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification essays

  1. Examine the main trends in births and deaths in the United Kingdom since 1900

    Furthermore the changing norms bout what a child have a right to expect from their parents in material terms means that the cost of bringing up a child has risen. As a result of this the children are becoming more and more expensive to care for leading for smaller families and childless couples.

  2. Assess the causes and consequences of changes in the UK population

    * More women work, with laws outlawing unequal pay and sex discrimination. * Changes in attitudes and stigma attached to family life and women's roles. * Easier access to divorce. * Ability to obtain an abortion or reliable contraception, giving women more control over fertility.

  1. Poverty and welfare models

    manage to fight on It also does not treat poverty as an isolated phenomenon because it links it to other areas of social life. The relative definition is as much a measure of equality as poverty. It says no matter how rich people become, there will always be poverty, as long as not everybody is equally rich.

  2. 16th Century rebellions of the Netherlands.

    new bishoprics to replace the foreign sees under whose jurisdiction the Netherlands' ecclesiastical affairs had been traditionally based. The country's bishops would also be appointed abbots of the nearby monastic houses and supplied with inquisitors to monitor the orthodoxy of their flocks.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work