• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe competing criminological theories

Extracts from this document...


Report on the emergence and influence of positivist criminology theory on crime My scenario is that I am an undergrad student asked to produce a report outlining the influence and emergence positivist criminology has on crime. I am going to critically analyse the positivist theory and how this relates to crime, also I will discuss the emergence of positivist criminology theory and introduce the main theorists within positivist criminology. Criminology is the examination of scientific techniques to assess hypotheses and expand theories that elucidate the cause of crime and positions of crime. Criminological theory tends to be a very complicated matter. A number of schools of thought have been established and scientists, doctors and theologians have been theorizing for over five hundred years on what encourages crime in society today, ideas on theories of crime are continually changing. Several theories have been substituted by more contemporary methods and some act as early fundamentals for new recent ideas. Behavioural learning theory It was a man called Hans Eysenck who based on the psychological concept of training wanted to build a general theory of criminal behaviour. The idea of human conscience is central to his theory which he believes to be a leaned reflex. ...read more.


Most people would believe such murderers to be crazy. Holmes and De Burger (1989) dispute that such murderers do not experience any psychological illness, as in this type of situation there is naturally a motive of some sort. They explain four main types of serial killer. Firstly is the visionary motive type, this is where the killer carries out a crime based on voices or images in their head. The murder is generally impulsive and shambolic and only acted upon in reaction to the voices. Secondly is the mission-oriented motive type, this is where the killer has an objective or aspiration to get rid of a specific type of person. These killers are generally not considered psychotic but have great motivation to resolve a certain dilemma. Thirdly is the hedonistic type who kills for their own satisfaction. There are normally two sub types. The pleasure-oriented killer takes pleasure in the thrill of killing and does so for enjoyment. There is also the lust killer, who kills for a sexual intention, gaining enjoyment by exploiting others. Lastly is the dominance/power-orientated type, who is hard to differentiate from the lust or acts, although the sex is only a form of control over the victim. ...read more.


Although the circuitous influence of additional reference crowds for instance the media - it is their own behaviour. Secondly, definitions, which mirror significance that an individual relates to their own behaviour. Thirdly, differential reinforcement relates to the definite consequences of a specific behaviour. It is suggested that individuals will do things they believe will outcome in rewards and will elude actions they believe will outcome in a penalty. Fourth, imitation, which includes watching what others are doing, whether they decide to imitate that behaviour will be dependent on the type of person being watched. The way that individual acts and the watched consequences of that behaviour for others. Akers at el, (1979) suggests that criminal behaviour is learned through a particular series of events. Firstly, the differential association of the person with different people who have favourable meanings of criminal behaviour, they supply a model of criminal behaviour to be imitated and social reinforcements for that behaviour, differential reinforcements will decide if that individual will carry on with that behaviour. Akers (1992) disputes that the social learning procedure defines the relation between social structural surroundings and criminal behaviour. The modernisation procedure and social disorganisation, damage conditions and financial discrimination and have all been linked with the behaviour of criminals. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Crime & Deviance section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Crime & Deviance essays

  1. Sociological Theories on Crime and Deviance

    They also show disadvantaged groups have a greater risk of becoming victims, for example unskilled workers are twice as likely to be burgled then other people. Thus understandably disadvantaged groups have a greater fear of crime and have a greater effect on their lives.

  2. Compare and Contrast the Main Sociological Theories of Deviance.

    This will lead to a materialistic capitalist system that may force working people to commit crime as they have a lower income and may not be able to afford to buy things like the rest of the society. Marxists helped to explain the different types of crimes besides the most obvious ones.

  1. Criminal Investigation Procedures

    Please make all responses clear and fluent. 1. Do you understand why we have brought you in for questioning? 2. You are being questioned about the suspected murder of a Mr Sam Pepper which occurred at 270 Leek road. 3.

  2. Describe psychological research on offender profiling and Evaluate psychological research on offender profiling.

    In contrast the American approach is fully coordinated by the FBI and they have set routines, which are followed for every case, meaning that the methods are more generalisable. The third evaluation issue is ecological validity, which means how true to life the findings of a study are.

  1. What are the uses of both qualitative and quantitative research methods for the criminological ...

    Due to the fact that the method is cheap a larger sample can be used which makes it more representative and will help generalisations to be made regarding crime and anti social behaviour in the contemporary society. Quantitative data is more efficient, able to test hypotheses which are a positive factor.

  2. subcultural theory

    instead created an alternative set of norms and values in which they can achieve success and status. Cohen argued that the delinquent subculture not only rejects mainstream culture, but also reverses it. For example, a high value is placed on deviant activities such as vandalism and stealing, which is condemned in normal society.

  1. Referring to the John Duffy "Railway Rapist" case to illustrate, discuss the strengths and ...

    Canter (1994) describes his task as picking from the shadows left by the criminals, those consistent patterns in behaviour. What happens during the offence can give clues to the non-offending parts of their lives. There will also be evidence from the interaction between the victim and the offender because we are social beings even in such unusual situations.

  2. anti-social behaviour

    Notably, they are not intended to be criminal penalties, or punishment. These orders are used widely for a variety of anti- social behaviour such as graffiti, prostitution and criminal damage to name but a few. 2.8 Nevertheless, they have come under heavy criticism for a number of reasons.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work