• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe law and order in London in the late 19th century

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Question 1: Describe law and order in London in the late 19th century (15 marks) The industrial revolution (1750 - 1850) facilitated the development of manufacturing industries in which a vast number of people became employed. This influx of employees followed a high density of accommodation in towns and cities, which began to cultivate. The substantial number of jobs meant a low pay and the accommodation reached unhygienic conditions where up to seven people would live in one tiny room. The employment in Whitechapel became exceedingly competitive and numerous were unable to find employment, women eventually turned to prostitution with their money often spent on alcohol and accommodation. These conditions got worse with the unemployed turning to crime. Throughout each year, the classes of society became gradually distant until the middle class and lower class were separated in both sides of Whitechapel. Whitechapel in 1888 was not a typical London suburb; it was socially and economically different to the rest of the Victorian City. Infested in crime and poverty, most people who lived there were the working poor, people who would work occasionally and criminals, in fact an estimated 1500 prostitutes worked in Whitechapel from a Metropolitan Police survey. Prostitution was so common in Whitechapel that police on the beat often turned a blind eye towards it. Being a prostitute in Whitechapel's areas of poverty was only way in which a penniless woman could survive. A prostitute usually served only the lower class and was typically divorced, had a life expectancy of 35 years and a cost of 4 pence for her service. There were over 200 common lodging houses in Whitechapel, which could fill almost 9000 people. The rooms were unhygienic and infected with insects and vermin. If a prostitute could not afford somewhere to sleep, she would have to find someone who would give her accommodation in return for sexual favours or she would have to sleep on the street. ...read more.

Middle

Social reformers used the Whitechapel murders to their advantage and argued the need to improve living conditions of poor people. In 1875, social reformers had helped to pass a piece of legislation, which allowed the government to clear London's slums. Property owners were charging for double beds, single beds and the "lean-to", a way one could sleep by hanging their arms over a rope strung across a room. The Artisans Dwelling Act of 1875 meant London authorities were allowed to buy slum property and demolish it before building new accommodation for the working classes; however, property owners were compensated for the loss of their properties using the rent they were getting before their property was bought from them. Since the public of Whitechapel who needed accommodation was poverty-stricken, they could only afford low rents, so in effect; this policy caused overcrowding in the slums. This was for the reason that property owners squeezed plenty of people into each property to claim maximum compensation while their properties were compulsorily purchased from them. There was political unrest occurring in which the Liberals and the Irish Home Rule Party used the ripper and newspapers to their full advantage. Queen Victoria also wrote to the Prime Minister urging him to take action to catch the ripper. Whitechapel in 1888 was not a typical London suburb. Infested in crime and poverty, an estimate of 1500 prostitutes served in Whitechapel from a Metropolitan Police survey. Charles Booth's analysis of Whitechapel found that 2% of the East End was homeless; 4% were street urchins and the very poor; 12% were poverty stricken, and a disturbing 55% of children died before the age of five. There were also foreigners such as Jews who had fled the Pogroms in Russia and Poles expelled from Prussia. Tabloid Newspapers such as The Star (London) and the Illustrated London News were created and the education act of 1870 extended basic education for children up to the age of 11, which created a literate generation ready for this tabloid, Ripper influx. ...read more.

Conclusion

The murderer had no motive other than to brutally kill and degrade the sex of the prostitutes and to show the victim in such a state to shock and distress the observer. The murder was quick and careful and made sure the satisfaction was received from the murders. The serial nature of the crime meant that the technology available could not the catch the criminal, as the method was prevention and not detection. The prostitutes continued to work despite the risks as a typical prostitute had to work at least once a day to get somewhere to sleep for the night and an alcoholic drink. After the fifth murder the killer stopped, probably from being killed, realising the danger of being caught or fleeing to another country. On November 10th, the Cabinet allowed a pardon to any accomplice of the killer who would turn him in, hoping that if there were a group, they would confess to the murders and the members of their group. The investigations were published and interfered with by the press. On 13th September, The East London Observer made a statement in that Catherine Eddowes knew the identity of Jack the ripper and was intending to claim the reward. On the 27th September, the ripper in concept that his identity would be exposed brutally murdered Catherine Eddowes that even the toughest police found difficulty entering the crime scene. In 1888, the police were oblivious to sexual psychopaths and were not prepared for the ripper's serial attacks. Currently, they have the technology such as elaborate profiling techniques and have amassed a database of information with which forensic psychologists and psychiatrists can determine the kind of individual perpetrating the crime. Overall, the police did not catch the ripper but they did make stop the serial murders and made every effort to free London of the terror. As the identity of the ripper had not been solved, it has helped create books films and documentaries and educate the future generations about this investigation even though it which happened more than a century ago. ?? ?? ?? ?? 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Crime & Deviance section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Crime & Deviance essays

  1. The purpose of crime scene investigation is to help establish what happened at the ...

    Taping should begin with the general outline of the scene and surrounding area. Taping should continue throughout the scene using different angles, close-ups, and still shots for a few seconds. Once videotaping has finished it is then best to also capture the crime scene with still photography.

  2. Explain why Prisons were reformed in the early 19th century.

    The second group of reformers objected to the structural conditions, over-crowding and corruption, which led to an ever-growing volume of prisoners often debtors. John Howard, High Sheriff of Bedfordshire in 1773, visited every prison in England, Wales and then Europe.

  1. Referring to the John Duffy "Railway Rapist" case to illustrate, discuss the strengths and ...

    result of both confidence and experience rather than the use of an exclusive technique. The implications would therefore be that both training and practical experience are vital in developing profiling expertise and that productive liaison between the police and psychologists is the way forward in order to achieve both investigative and clinical objectives.

  2. REVISION - CRIME, PUNISHMENT AND PROTEST INTRODUCTION Crime, Punishment and Protest covers a period ...

    At other times, it might be particular social groups or classes or, with increasing democracy, bodies representing the people as a whole. 2: Types of crime In all the societies you will have studied, the most common crime is small-scale (petty or minor)

  1. Crime is rapidly increasing in this day and age, however, thanks to the increasing ...

    The forensic scientist determine the possible manufacture of a bullet by examining the rifling impressions made on the surface of the fired bullet, the firing pin and breech face markings. Castings and photographs of bullet holes also yield information. Test firings are often made because the bullet changes shape on impact.

  2. The following essay will explore the question; What is the relationship between policing governance ...

    In recent years the UK appears to have moved away from? a community-based police force as the police have become progressively more specialist and professionalised, and accountable now only to the Home Secretary. Unsurprisingly, this has not resulted in any noticeable increase in police efficiency or effectiveness.

  1. "Prison makes bad people worse". Critically evaluate this statement in the light of rising ...

    Despite this argument, one of the most influential factors associated with how prisons operate in the UK today is the concept of human rights. The 1998 Human Rights Act governs these rights. Along with this, the Prisons Inspectorate introduced guidelines on what factors should constitute a healthy custodial environment based on international human rights principles.

  2. What is a gang?

    Daily gang life is generally not very exciting. Gang members sleep late, sit around the neighborhood, drink and do drugs and possibly go to a meeting place in the evening, such as a pool hall or roller rink. They may work a street corner selling drugs or commit petty crimes like vandalism or theft.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work