• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Distinguish among positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, presentation punishment, and removal punishment

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Distinguish among positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, presentation punishment, and removal punishment. Give a concrete example of each. Whenever a particular stimulus is presented after a behavior, and the behavior increases as a result, positive reinforcement has occurred. This is the case whether or not the presented stimulus is one that others would agree is pleasant and desirable. For instance, some students will make a response to get a teacher's praise, but others (like James in our case study) ...read more.

Middle

Take, for example, concrete reinforcers. A concrete reinforcer is an actual object-something that can be touched. Snacks, stickers, and toys are all examples of concrete reinforcers. Such reinforcers are especially likely to be effective with young children. In contrast, negative reinforcement brings about the increase of a behavior through the removal of a stimulus (typically an unpleasant one). The word negative here is not a value judgment; it simply refers to the act of taking away a stimulus. ...read more.

Conclusion

All punishing consequences fall into one of two groups. Presentation punishment involves presenting a new stimulus, presumably something that a student finds unpleased and doesn't want. Spankings, scolding, and teacher scowls, if they lead to a reduction in the behavior they follow, are all instances or presentation punishment. Removal punishment involves removing a previously existing stimulus, presumably one that a student finds desirable and doesn't want to lose. The loss of a privilege, a fine (involving the loss of money or points), and "grounding" (when certain pleasurable outside activities are missed) are all possible examples of removal punishment. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Crime & Deviance section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Crime & Deviance essays

  1. Corporal Punishment.

    But just 26 percent say grade-school teachers should be allowed to spank kids at school; 72 percent say it shouldn't be permitted, including eight in 10 parents of grade-schoolers.

  2. Which is more effective - punishment by imprisonment or with in the community?

    Reconviction rates do vary by type of order. 2-year rates for probation and combination orders were 59% and 60% respectively considerably higher than the 52% for community service. Reconviction rates for prisoners released after short sentences of up to 12 months were higher (60%) than those for longer-term prisoners.

  1. Assess the Strengths and Weaknesses of the Different Aims of Punishment

    Moberly sees that some criminals may not benefit from punishment but they still need to be taken out of circulation to protect the public. However, Moberly does not think that the people segregated from society should be left to rot in low quality prisons.

  2. crime and punishment

    Through community policing, community members were able to learn the role of the officers that serve them, which made them more aware of that was expected of them, the citizens. Residents were not accustomed to seeing a police officer walking in their neighborhood and talking with people with no other motive than to address their problems and concerns.

  1. Crime And Punishment

    The media never has been and probably never will be an accurate source for criminology or criminal analysis. The sensationalist media depiction of crime is almost always exaggerated and biased toward violent crimes. From newspapers to television the crimes that get the most coverage and attention are homicides and aggravated assaults.

  2. What is the Function of Punishment?

    Bentham, for example, argued that apparent justice was everything, and real justice was essentially irrelevant. And John Stuart Mill, in defending the death penalty, stated that "to deter by suffering by inflicting suffering is not only possible, but the very purpose of penal Justice.

  1. Corporal Punishment.

    Furthermore teachers also argue that if it is inevitable that they will have to control unwilling children that they (the staff) should receive a rise in pay which neither the schools or council can afford due to more important educational reasons.

  2. The Evolution of Punishment.

    These forms of punishment as well as others were used over a period of time amongst the Egyptians, Assyrians, Syrians, French, Romans and Asians. It was then considered by all that a certain deal of punishment being used was set.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work