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Distinguish among positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, presentation punishment, and removal punishment

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Distinguish among positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, presentation punishment, and removal punishment. Give a concrete example of each. Whenever a particular stimulus is presented after a behavior, and the behavior increases as a result, positive reinforcement has occurred. This is the case whether or not the presented stimulus is one that others would agree is pleasant and desirable. For instance, some students will make a response to get a teacher's praise, but others (like James in our case study) ...read more.


Take, for example, concrete reinforcers. A concrete reinforcer is an actual object-something that can be touched. Snacks, stickers, and toys are all examples of concrete reinforcers. Such reinforcers are especially likely to be effective with young children. In contrast, negative reinforcement brings about the increase of a behavior through the removal of a stimulus (typically an unpleasant one). The word negative here is not a value judgment; it simply refers to the act of taking away a stimulus. ...read more.


All punishing consequences fall into one of two groups. Presentation punishment involves presenting a new stimulus, presumably something that a student finds unpleased and doesn't want. Spankings, scolding, and teacher scowls, if they lead to a reduction in the behavior they follow, are all instances or presentation punishment. Removal punishment involves removing a previously existing stimulus, presumably one that a student finds desirable and doesn't want to lose. The loss of a privilege, a fine (involving the loss of money or points), and "grounding" (when certain pleasurable outside activities are missed) are all possible examples of removal punishment. ...read more.

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