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Does Multi-Culturalism depend on Removing Ideas of Ethnicity from the Concept of Nation, and Replacing them with Civic Ideas of the Nation?

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Does Multi-Culturalism depend on Removing Ideas of Ethnicity from the Concept of Nation, and Replacing them with Civic Ideas of the Nation? >NO BECAUSE MULTI CULTURALISM DEPENDS ON ETHNICITY. IT IS WHAT CONSTITUTES ETHNICITY AND CANNOT MATERIALISE IN A CIVIC NATION! >draw more distinction betw the defs - ethnic and civic and multi-cultural. Reference more clearly > 'ethnie' in italics In order to start this question, it is necessary to try to explain some of the phrases within it. Multi-culturalism, nation and civic are all concepts that intertwine in different ways. Ethnicity and civic ideas in the nation can exist together and one incorporates the other. Multiculturalism is the civic nation in so far as a 'nation' is a modern, liberal concept but as a general rule, the state's attempt to assimilate immigrants and national minorities into the culture of the dominant ethnie (multi-culturalism) have been met with little success. For example, the state has managed to establish a national system of education and compel most minorities and immigrants to put their children through its uniform schooling system but on the otherhand, modern nations are civic and ethnic which constitutes multi-culturalism. Modern nations are both civic and ethnic and therefore 'multi-cultural' in theory however we shall see that multi-culturalism as a theory does not work to its full definition. The term,'Multi-cultural' for Kymlicka represents 'a broader way to encompass a wide range of non-ethnic social groups which have been excluded or marginalised from mainstream society.'1 For the purposes of this essay it means multi-clturalism which arises from national and ethnic difference. ENTER PG NO Another form of multi-culturalism is when different cultures insist that all citizens have the same relationship with the state which is a model that allows for a degree of diversity in terms of language and culture rather than seeking to assimilate different ethnic groups. (Wieviorka 1998.) The theory of the national state has generally assumed a civic form of nationalism. ...read more.


(Baumeister 2003) Multi-culturalism depends on ethnic communities not enjoying a wide range of unifying myths of origin but that they exist within an overriding national legal and political framework as well as participating in political and cultural spheres. This system can be seen in Canada. In Quebec, there has been a commitment to multi-culturalism and the ideal of a polyethnic nation. However the problems with this 'plural' model or model of 'deep diversity' or 'communitarianism' are rife. Compared with the civic and ethnic models, it has only recently obtained support in national states such as Canada, the United States, Australia and New Zealand (Smith). ETHNIC AND MULTI-C DIFFERNETIATION Where former dominant ethnic groups have established the linguistic, legal and educational framework, the national identity of the nation changed because of the influx of other ethnic nationalities as immigrants who changed the character of the national community and pluralised its former identity. The central difficulty of the multi-cultural nation is seen through its inability to secure political stability after abandoning both the ethnic model and the civic uniformity model. It is difficult to see what common good the state will secure. The liberal regime which is meant to include a multi-cultural society can exist in different contexts. For states must make decisions about which official language to use, which public holidays to observe and how to draw internal boundaries. Since these decisions reflect the norm of the majority culture, they tend to place ethnic minorities at a disadvantage. The majority culture is allowed to shape the public domain and is therefore perceived as 'normal' with the minority being 'different.' This may lead to a lack of confidence or self-esteem for those in the minority which makes it difficult for them to become functioning participants in society. (Baumeister 2003) Kymlicka has argued that minorities should be granted group-specific cultural rights in order to ensure that the autonomy of all citizens is protected equally (Kymlicka 1998.) ...read more.


(Shakar 2001) Generally by promoting a sense of cooperation and communication between the powerful and traditionally marginalised groups within society, then multi-culturalism can work. But I shall remind us of Wieviorka's statement that it is very difficult to have an 'equal and just' system of mult-culturalism to promote both the individual and the group. People feel strongly about the language they use, the buildings they worship and so on because they display the governing ethnic group's strength to hold their own and struggle for survival. This is why multi-culturalism is weak in standing as a framework for a nation in ensuring political and economic stability and shows how, in my opinion, civic nationalism is better for the survival of a country threatened by external forces. Different ethnicities have different political goals all of which cannot come together to form a strong ally against economic or political threat. Mutual tolerance, in my view, is an ideal concept found in the multi-cultural model which unfortunately different ethnic groups cannot sustain. This is evident in our world today, it is happening in front of our very own eyes with war and terrorism, Perhaps it is due to America's strong civic nationalism that is causing it to win as a nation against the rest of the world in its fights for power. Even if America contains many different ethnic minority groups, they tend to accept their position and violence and ethnic riots are not so common event thought they do exist. Western national concepts have been adopted by political elites in Asia and Africa in an attempt to create a 'nation' but have failed to reach their national goals because there remains a big gap before the population can become a homogenous nation. This is where the ethnic model of the nation comes in as it has its emphasis upon descent, populism, culture and nativism. (Smith 1987) 1 Kymlicka 'multi-cultural citizenship' Oxford University Press' 1998 p 2 Fenton 'Ethnicity racism, class and culture' Macmillan Press LTD p172 3 ibid, p172 4 Baumeister 'Ways of Belonging' SAGE Publications 2003 p398 5 ibid. Baumeister p402 6 ibid, p404 ...read more.

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