• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Evaluate the Holistic (macro) Approaches to the Study of Crime & Deviance

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Evaluate the Holistic (macro) Approaches to the Study of Crime & Deviance There are three main macro approaches towards crime and deviance I will introduce in this essay. I will also be discussing one micro approach to criticise their theories. Holistic approaches tend to look at society as a whole, rather than biological and psychological explanations. The functionalist perspective is a very holistic view. Deviance to them is explained by society and its institutions; they believe that the police, courts and other ways of maintaining social order are important. But they also agree that some deviance is functional. Durkheim was a functionalist, he argued that deviance is inevitable, and even a normal aspect of social life although it could become dysfunctional if it became out of hand. Crime and deviance is present in all societies and as societies develops crime increases. This cane been seen by the arrival if the industrial revolution, Durkheim felt that collective conscious would be weakened and society would become more anonymous. The different roles of people and increased division of labour had brought about separation of society and divided to population into different classes of wealth. ...read more.

Middle

This is why traditional Marxists say that the statistics on crime and deviance are distorted as they only record the crime that they are looking for. Middle class crime or white collar crime like tax fraud and fiddling tends to be over looked. It is a fact that street crime is more likely to be pursued and even when white collar crime is exposed it is less likely to be reported. Durkheim said that that law reflects the will of the people but Marxist says that it reflects the will of the powerful. The middle class are also more beneficial by the law as they are the ones creating the law and the ones enforcing it. Marxists also see crime as a good thing; they state that it leads society to change. This is linked to historical materialism - when society changed from traditional to fudal to ancient and to today's communist society. Crime is seen as good as it helps society to change from one stage to the next. ...read more.

Conclusion

The interactionist (micro) approach views deviance from a different theoretical perspective, its more concerned with understanding the motives and the meanings of crime and deviance. Micro approaches tend to look at the groups themselves and want to find the root or the cause. Howard S. suggested that there is no such thing as a deviant act and it only becomes deviant when others define it as deviant. Becker finds Deviance to be a product of a label. For example if people see an individual to being deviant an a misfit they may respond to the label an live up to it as that's what is expected of them. Therefore Becker argues that "deviance is not a quality that lies in behaviour itself, nut in the interaction between the person who commits the act and those who respond to it." Becker is more concerned with how labels influence crime and deviance and its responses, not with the whole of society. So from the interactionist perspective deviance is produced by a process of interaction between the potential deviant and the agents of social control. The macro holistic approaches just look at the social control. ?? ?? ?? ?? Meera Makwana Mr Woodburn - Sociology ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Crime & Deviance section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Crime & Deviance essays

  1. Sociological Theories on Crime and Deviance

    Official crime statistics show that males are roughly four times more likely to commit crimes than females. However, women are involved in all types of crime and female crime is rising. 2. Self-report study data shows that females are less likely to offend than males.

  2. Evaluate Functionalist Theories of Crime and Deviance

    groups, noting cases within which migrant groups are able to integrate well and without trouble. Interactionists would argue that Park's theories are overly simple as they ignore the concept of "space with a social meaning"- with groups fighting for the symbolic and social status of the "space", and not for the space itself.

  1. Evaluate subcultural explanations for crime and deviance

    Chambliss argues that capitalism gives rise to huge economic inequalities as the powerless (working class) are exploited by the ruling class. He maintains that it is the poverty and unemployment experienced by the working class that explains their criminality. He also argues that the values transmitted by capitalism such as

  2. describe four studies relating to crime and deviance - each from a different perspective. ...

    Upper and middle class families are thought to have the means to succeed using the accepted methods. Whereby the lower class adolescent will rarely be given those legitimate opportunities. Cohen suggests that usually class differentials and the socialization process are the cause of such subcultures, as residents within the lower

  1. Compare and Contrast the Main Sociological Theories of Deviance.

    The deviant is one to whom that label has successfully been applied, deviant behaviour is behaviour that people so label.' The degree to which other people will respond to a given act as deviant varies greatly. Several kinds of variation seem worth mentioning.

  2. Outline and Assess Sociological Approaches to Social Control Within Crime and Deviance

    This definition reflects modern societies more effectively than absolutist definitions. It takes into account the constantly changing nature of deviance and can be combined with a reactivist definition to provide a fuller picture of the process of deviancy creation. However, it fails to explain why some norms are considered more

  1. Critically Compare and Contrast Functionalist and Traditional Marxist Perspectives On Crime.

    However, Merton took Durkheim's theory of 'anomie' (a state of normlessness) and showed it to be too vague and made his own alteration to the concept to show how a dysfunction between 'goals and means'. This proved that a person could commit a crime in order to be successful due to pressure from society to achieve certain goals.

  2. Explain & Evaluate Functionalist, Marxist & Interactionist Theories of Crime & Deviance

    murder may bring about boundary maintenance and unite a community, whilst having a negative impact on relatives of the one murdered. Merton (1938) further expands on Durkheim?s ideas of anomie to explain deviance and suggests that deviance is the result of a strain between: the goals that a culture encourages

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work