• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

'Examine developments in biological research into criminality and discuss whether our scientific understanding is sufficiently advanced to permit the safe use of these ideas in society today.'

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Criminology Examine developments in biological research into criminality and discuss whether our scientific understanding is sufficiently advanced to permit the safe use of these ideas in society today Name: Louise Marshall Matriculation Number: 03001693 Programme of Study: Business Studies F/T Louise Marshall 03001693 'Examine developments in biological research into criminality and discuss whether our scientific understanding is sufficiently advanced to permit the safe use of these ideas in society today.' Criminology is the study of human behaviour, especially abnormal behaviour. The main people that researched criminal behaviour in terms of the biological approach were, Lombroso, Lamark and Darwin. Darwin believed of evolutionism in the case that animals are the same as humans and behaved in a similar way, and he believed that humans were evolved from animals as did Lombroso. Lamark believed differently, he believed in the non Darwinian form of evolution where traits learned by one generation are passed onto the next through hereditary. Behavioural characteristics are more complex to study than the appearances of criminals but are still able to be managed, manipulated and observed. The phenotype of an individual that criminologists want to study and observe include aggressiveness, impulsivity, attention and other cognitive deficits. People believed that those identified as being a 'criminal' had some sort of physical or biological characteristics that differed from those 'non criminals'. This can make them look inferior to others therefore will look very distinctive and easy to distinguish if they are criminals or not. This socially unacceptable, people who may look different may get classed as criminals even if they are not, it can also mean that they will get isolated in the environment even if they are not criminals. ...read more.

Middle

One in seventy to ninety births are twins, in this amount one in four are monozygotic. In thirteen pairs of male monozygotic, seventy seven percent of them had both twins in prison or committing a crime, and in dizygotic the rate was seventeen percent, this study had a control group which was two hundred and fourteen pairs of brothers this rate was eight percent. This proved to the researcher that criminal behaviour is hereditary. The down side of this study was that there were not enough samples and the splitting the twins into monozygotic and dizygotic was based only on visual impression so the study was not reliable because some monozygotic twins were dizygotic. DNA testing now reduces that risk of false pairing. This study is not scientifically proven to relate hereditary to criminals therefore unable to be used in out society today making it unsafe to use in determining the link. There have been many twin studies throughout the twentieth century, this included Lange in 1929, he concluded 'as far as crime is concerned, monozygotic twins on the whole react in a definitely similar manner and dizygotic twins behave quite differently'. An adoption study is another way of investigating the impact of hereditary on crime. Also trying to determine if there is a link between the adoptee and adoptive parent seeing if they learn there criminal behaviour. If a child is adopted at a young age when born then they will develop more like its parent than their natural mother. If someone was to be removed from a criminal parent at an early age and placed in a non criminal home and then goes on to be of criminal behaviour this evidence can them provide a link between criminal behaviour and genetics. ...read more.

Conclusion

Since then Mednick et al (1981) wanted to answer this study, they took EEG recordings from Danish boys aged between ten and thirteen. The recordings were then done 6 years later with the boys who had committed a crime compared to those who had not. The findings included that those who had been arrested for crimes showed a large level of slow brain wave activity . Another study that had been done on offenders was on the intelligence level of the offender. Alfred Binet developed a test to school children which was designed to report who needed assistance. The result of the test was known as their 'mental age', these tests were given to inmates by Henry H Goddard in 1914. The test appeared to show that the offenders were not intelligent but 'feeble' minded. That's when others assumed that criminal have lower IQ than others. Hendilang in 1977 believed that failure in school can lead to the adoption of criminal behaviour. Any scientific study of criminal behaviour will uncover the causes of such criminal behaviour such as aggression and the causes that are beyond control. All the studies mentioned are not highly recommended in convicting people to crime. The biological research into criminality can be way to understand crime and why people commit them, but they all are not sufficiently advanced to prove that any factor can be used to commit someone to a crime. None of these studies mentioned can be used in society, they are either too small a sample to go by, or sometimes unrealistic. People are individuals they react differently, even when involved in alcohol or drugs, they are there own person. They are individual; you can not base someone on someone else's findings. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Crime & Deviance section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Crime & Deviance essays

  1. Assess The Contribution Of Control Theory To Our Understanding Of Crime And Criminality

    Classical criminology grew out of a reaction against the barbaric system of law, justice and punishment that was in existence before 1789. It sought an emphasis on free will and human rationality. The Classical School was not interested in studying criminals, but rather law-making and legal processing.

  2. Assess the right realist view that crime is the result of biological rational factors ...

    An important element in the right realist view of crime comes from rational choice theory which assumes that individuals have free will and the power of reason. Ron Clarke argue that the decision to commit crime is a choice based on a rational calculation of the likely consequences.

  1. Critically discuss the practical and ethical difficulties involved when researching White Collar Crime. Give ...

    the research is analysed instead of focusing more individualistically on the crime, Croall (1997). RESEARCH PROBLEMS WITH WHITE COLLAR CRIME As previously discussed research surrounding white collar crime has been deserted to some extent. Very little research has been done in this area, one reason for this includes the fact

  2. Referring to the John Duffy "Railway Rapist" case to illustrate, discuss the strengths and ...

    More recent research has made greater claims for the usefulness of offender profiling (for example, approximately 80% of cases solved were helped by offender profiling according to Canter and Heritage, 1990). In the UK, a survey of detectives in 48 police forces, who had worked with offender profiling concluded that

  1. 'Crime is both deterred and prevented by the use of imprisonment.' Discuss

    of freedom, they were to be rehabilitated and reformed to be able to resist the temptation to re-offend and to live good honest lives upon release. Revisionists held more radical views in that they saw correctional institutions as repressive forms of social control, born from class conflict and to protect the vested interests of the wealthy and the governing class.

  2. The Classical School of Criminology

    In this sense, punishment can be seen as preventative. But in order to be effective, the deterrence must possess celerity (swiftness), severity, and certainty (Beccaria, 1764, p.282-284). If a punishment is quick to follow the crime, people are more likely to recall the connection when contemplating a criminal act, and weigh it into their consideration-this is celerity.

  1. The effect of appearance on the percieved criminality of young individuals

    My research objectives are to: 1. Construct a questionnaire that will enable me to research the perceived criminality of young individuals based on their appearance. 2. Select a valid sample from an appropriate sampling frame. 3. Carry out my questionnaires effectively as a pilot study.

  2. What is a gang?

    members are males ranging in age from eight to 22 years old, females, especially Asian and Hispanic, are moving away from the traditional role of being merely girlfriends of gang members and are forming their own gangs, gangs wear particular items, styles, brands or colors of clothing, some gangs wear

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work