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Examine the main trends in births and deaths in the United Kingdom since 1900

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Introduction

Examine the main trends in births and deaths in the United Kingdom since 1900 (24marks) Births are the amount of babies born. Sociologists use the concept of birth rate to measure births. The birth rate is defined as the number of live births per 1000 of the population per year. There has been a long-term decline in the number of births since 1900. In that year, England and Wales had a birth rate of 28.7, but by 2007 it had fallen to an estimated 10.7. However there have been fluctuations in births, with three 'baby dooms' in the 20th century. The first came after the two world wars, 1974-18 and 1939-1945, as returning servicemen and their partners started families that they had postponed during the war years. There was the third baby boom in the 1960s, after which the birth rate fell sharply during the 1970s. The rate rose during the 1980s, before falling again after the early 1990s. ...read more.

Middle

In terms of family size, this has encouraged smaller families so the parents can pay more attention of the few children they have compared to many. In addition to the child centeredness, the family itself is a cause of the decline in the birth rate. This is because better off couples may be able to have larger families and still afford childcare that allows them both to work full-time, whilst some couples who are not as well off are unable to have a large family and pay for childcare and work full-time. This is a factor causing the decline. The number of deaths has remained fairly stable since 1900, at round about 600000 per year, although the number of deaths was out of a much smaller population than today. However there have been some important fluctuations. Foe example the two world wars brought a rise in the number of deaths, while the influenza epidemic of 1918 brought deaths to a record level of 690000. ...read more.

Conclusion

Advances include the introduction of antibiotics, widespread immunisation, blood transfusions and the introduction of the NHS. Thirdly the government in the 20th century improved the public health services and the quality of the environment. These included improvement in housing, purer drinking water, laws to combat the adulteration of food and drink, along with other change. Finally other social changes were made within the 20th century of the decline in manual jobs such as mining. Also smaller families reduced the rate of transmission of infections. Furthermore the education of the population upon illnesses and causes. Also the life expectancy has increase from 50 years old in 1900 to 77 in 2005 for male and for female 57 in 1900 to 81 in 2005. This is another reason for the decline in the death rates from 1900 to 2007. The trends from the evidence I have gathered so that the birth rate and the death rate are declining. This will cause an ageing population where there will be a lower number of under 16 and an increase of 65 and over ...read more.

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