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Examine ways in witch social policies & laws may influence families & households

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Introduction

Yaman Examine ways in witch social policies & laws may influence families & households In my essay I will be looking at how social policies & laws effect, marriage rates, divorce rates, cohabitation etc. Most government policies gave tried to protect the individuals within the family and some have been aimed at maintaining the traditional nuclear family. Policies can be seen as direct, laws affecting the family itself, or indirect, laws affecting other areas such as education, the workplace etc, and direct policies such as these for e.g. laws effect when we can, how may people we can marry etc, they also effect what we do in the family i.e. martial laws, laws also cover adoption & other such issues. There are also indirect policies witch can affect the family & type of households such as, what type of school we go to. A study found of 152 children in Exeter found that children being brought up by both parents experienced fewer health, school and social problems than those whose parents had split. It was also found that children from re-ordered families were at least twice as likely to have problems with health, behavior, schoolwork and social life and also to have a low opinion of them. ...read more.

Middle

foods or nutrients). This information is essential to permit governments to use such means as tariffs, support prices, or export prices to modify the price structure in ways that protect poor families. For macro or regional policy purposes, a price subsidy to increase food consumption of a population or a segment of the population can be implemented with the assumption that households will re-allocate this food to their members. This is the least expensive approach because household-level income and consumption data are sufficient. Health reduced-form relation function The household unified preference function, however, offers little information regarding to what extent changes in food prices affect individual family members (Rosenzweig 1990); for this purpose, individual food intake or other commodity consumption is needed. Collecting individual food intake data is difficult and costly (Behrman 1990). In place of food consumption data, Rosenzweig (1990) and Behrman (1990) suggest using individual biological outcomes (health or nutritional status) to analyse, for example, how changes in exogenous factors such as the prices of food or medical services result in changes in the health of individuals. ...read more.

Conclusion

A two-stage estimation procedure is commonly used in the attempt to overcome this problem. The first stage describes the household's "demand" for the inputs to welfare outcomes such as child health. The second stage estimates the production functions using predicted allocation based on the demand estimates. This procedure is very useful for better anticipating how the allocation of resources within the household will respond to outside changes induced by government programmes, and how foods and other inputs will directly affect health outcomes (Rosenzweig 1990). As an example of this two-stage procedure, Berman, Kendall, and Bhattacharyya (1994) cite the work of Popkin (1980), who applied this type of model to nutrition in the Philippines to demonstrate the effects of employment opportunities, for mothers outside the home, on child care and nutrition. Such knowledge is important not only for a better understanding of the ways in which families allocate their resources but also for the design of family life education and home economics programmes to help families to allocate their resources better. It requires, however, large quantities of carefully collected data at both the family and the individual level. These data are expensive to gather, thereby hindering widespread use of the methods, especially in large surveys. ...read more.

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