• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Explain the emergence of compulsory mass education in England during the second half of the 19th Century.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Matt Eagles Explain the emergence of compulsory mass education in England during the second half of the 19th Century. At the height of its days of Empire, Britain was the core of manufacturing and productivity and classed as the worlds largest and most powerful force. A Royal Commission stated in 1882 "The Englishman has yet to learn that an extended and systematic education is now a necessary preliminary to the fullest development of industry." During the last 150 years Britain has slipped from its station as "the worlds workshop" a place where 54% of the worlds exports were produced in 1860 to less than 4% in 1994. Other European nations had already established concrete education systems, even the "troublesome" France. These nations were also enjoying a period of relative economic prosperity. The ranging blame for this cast a spotlight onto the education of Britain and its links with production. During the period 1780 to 1870 British education was presided over by the "voluntary" system, where being the schools in operation were maintained by affluent individuals, charities or more commonly the church. This laissez faire treatment of education was commonplace for the teaching of the working classes of England. Grants and donations were paid to "honourable" men who were willing to build schools and maintain them. ...read more.

Middle

Initially the working classes were not interested in taking education. Child labour increased post 1850 and was at the heart of Victorian families survival. Most families were not willing to take their children out of work losing income and then have to pay to send them to school. Samuel Whitbread in 1807 suggested the links between poverty and crime with education, despite being a very liberal view these sentiments are still echoed in modern Britain and enforced in 1901 by the Criminal Registrars comment that "Since the 1840's we have witnessed a great change in manners: the substitution of words without blows for blows with or without words; an approximation in the manners of different classes; a decline in lawlessness" Crime and pauperism however increased post 1850 as did wide spread social unrest and mob rule as previously mentioned the thought of workers rioting when they could be bolstering the flailing British economy send shocks amongst the policy makers and bookkeepers of the country. Amongst the riots and rebellion three were positive movements that in turn contributed to the spread of education for the working class. The increased collectivist idea amongst the working class symbolised with the Factory Acts of 1833 and 1844 had domino effects on the restrictions surrounding child labour this allowance or freeing up of children's time contributed to wide spread education all be it by default. ...read more.

Conclusion

They could also if deemed fit expel a child form their local school whilst still under law force them to attend one at a further distance from their home. The abolition of the school fees came in 1918 Fisher Act, although increased government intervention with fee grants in 1891 made compulsory education virtually free therefore leaving working classes with no excuses but to attend. The act was further built upon in1894 when the leaving age was increased to 11 then 12 in 1899 then 14 in 1900 before the Education Act of 1902. Education as with now reflects the social standing of the individual; furthermore it is geared at specific classes. The elite don't share the same opportunities as the rest of the population. In Marxist terms we are governed and have our opportunities determined by those who control our social environment. It may be argued that widespread education didn't emerge for so long in Britain as the working class actually didn't want to be educated, that it served little or no purpose to their social standing as it would have no relevance on how much food they could provide for their family. Similarly that the upper classes had no interest in educating their lesser beings only to have them become insightful and open to seditious and revolutionary material and beliefs; a sense that social control could be achieved by allowing education but also by withholding it. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Work & Leisure section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Work & Leisure essays

  1. Examining equality in Education.

    However, A.H. Halsey argues that education fails to offer the same opportunities to lower classes as it does to higher classes. Halsey's work indicates that children with less material resources are found disproportionately among the 'failures' of the education system.

  2. The Education Act of 1870.

    increased to over thirty two million, with children accounting for thirty to forty percent. From 1851, the majority of people lived in over crowded houses. Poverty increased in the towns owing to the immigration of the dispossessed workers from the country in search of employment, and the poor law system was strained by allowances and doles.

  1. a) With reference to the Items and elsewhere, assess the view that the introduction ...

    This is how school shape and mould children through the hidden curriculum to help them function in society. Some example of the "subjects" learnt from the hidden curriculum are the suitable type of behaviour in different situations, respecting rules and figure of authority, discipline an working as a team.

  2. Inequalities in education.

    It looks into education, especially the curriculum, peer group pressure and the role of the teachers. Rather than putting resonsibility of underachievement onto the child it suggests that we should examine what is going on within the school. Hargreaves study of Lumley Secondary school (where he observed behaviour)

  1. In the 15th Century the idea of 'schooling' began, the church ran the schools

    The aim was to upgrade current schools as to become as well equipped as the grammar schools, provide a broader curriculum, and create more universities and polytechnics and to increase access for the working classes. Children of all classes, race, gender and ability were to be taught under one roof.

  2. Singapore's education policies are largely influenced by the need to compete in a global ...

    For the same reason, it is also crucial that our education system produces people who are able to identify and anticipate problems, discover creative solutions and continue to acquire knowledge and skills even after leaving school. With the goal of producing such people in mind, the Ministry of Education (MOE)

  1. Comment on the strength and weakness of the social security system in Hong Kong

    An extra amount of $255 per month is given. Another system named Portable CSSA is specially designed for the elderly living in the Guang Dong Province. The number of cases receiving CSSA grew from 105000 in 1994 to 231000 in 1999. The growth rate was very high and the expenditure in CSSA was more than a half of the total expenditure in social welfare.

  2. An Investigation into Primary School Physical Education

    This statement is backed up by the results from a Sport England survey (http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/659425.stm, 2001) which suggests that 95% of primary schools have no full-time specialist PE teachers and 85% no part-time staff. This coincides with the primary school where I spent my placement as there was a PE manager,

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work