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Examine the relationship between Industrialisation and the changes in the family

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Introduction

Examine the relationship between Industrialisation and the changes in the family The industrial revolution caused huge changes within Britain during the 1750's and the 1850's. There were four main changes due to the industrial revolution and these were; Production moved from agricultural to industrial, Mechanisation (the introduction of machines to replace labour and speed up production), Urbanisation (the movement of population from land and into towns). This led to the development of cities, Population explosion - this is due to the increase in birth rate and decrease in death rate. These things had an impact on the family and led to changes in the structure and the roles of the family. Parson believed that every era would have a dominant family structure and it was the "best fit" for the economic conditions, which all fits in with the functionalist march of progress theory about social evolution. He believed that the pre industrial family (extended family) was in control. They maintained health for members, provided welfare for members and pursued justice for any family member who was in the wrong. He believed that three industrial changes were made to the family and they were that mass education was introduced. This was that nuclear families were formed due to family members moving away to get better opportunities such as education and these were put out due to industrialisation. ...read more.

Middle

Another reason for all this is apprenticeships. Laslett also suggested that the dominance of the nuclear family might have led to industrialisation. Even though Laslett claimed that the extended family did not exist, this did not mean that the horizontal family did not exist. There seemed to be evidence of co-operation between sibling's cousins and other family members in agricultural production. Another criticism is that Parish records were not very reliable and residences may have had separate registration but linked physically. Michael Young and Peter Willmott conducted studies of family life in London from the 1950's to the 1970's. They suggest that the industrial revolution led to the 'symmetrical family'. They believed that the family has gone through four main stages. Stage one; the pre-industrial family, stage 2; the early industrial family, stage 3; the symmetrical family and stage 4 concentrates on the way family will be in the future. Stage 1, (the pre-industrial family) is based on the unit of production; the husband wife and unmarried children work as a team to in agriculture or textiles. This slowly supplanted due to the industrial revolution. Stage 2, (the early industrial family) began in the 19th century. Family ceased to be a unit of production. Young and Willmott argue that the family extended beyond the nuclear family to extend networks for jobs. ...read more.

Conclusion

as an ideological apparatus Marxist feminists are sceptical about Parsons Claim that the nuclear family meets the needs of the industrial society. Margaret Benston (Marxist feminist 1792) suggested that the nuclear families important to capitalism due to future workforces. Other feminists believe that the nuclear family may o not be beneficial to capitalism because of emotional support for males who could be annoyed and frustrated after work. Radical feminists argue that the main effect of industrialisation was that women's main functions were defined as housewife, always allowing men to dominate paid work. They also argue that both men and women are socialised into the idea that males are superior. The family is the main arena for transmitting patriarchal ideology. Women and primarily sexual objects, mothers and housewives. This means that the family is essentially a patriarchal institution that exploits women and oppresses them It seems as though industrialisation has made a massive impact on the family, as it has encouraged changes in common family structures, which were mainly either nuclear or extended families, due to social or economic reasons during the industrial revolution. Also has also had an impact on the family roles, which can change to support the family and fit in with social prospects. However, we would never really be able to examine the statement fully due to ther amount of ways industrialisation has affected the family. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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