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For this assignment I am going to cover 86 years of change in St. Michaels Ward, Sunderland.

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History Assignment 1: Thornhill Terrace For this assignment I am going to cover 86 years of change in this locality (St. Michaels Ward, Sunderland), 1855, 1897 and 1941. Maps show a number of industries, businesses and homes have remained the same. Maps A and B show the most change, from a rural area to an urbanised area, from maps B to C there's even more urbanisation. In 1855, farming was the main industry, using most of the land. Farming was the main industry because st Michael's ward was a rural area and it had enclosed fields. We can also see on the map that there was a windmill (which was used with farming), the Bishopwearmouth steam mill which shows they adopted new technology and the Clarke tannery which would have been used to process animal skins and produce leather items. There is evidence of coal mining in the area (the coal depot and Hetton company's railway). The Hetton Company's railway opened in 1822 by engineer, George Stephenson. There is also evidence of a growing building industry as the stone yard was used for quarrying and the clay pit would probably be used to make stone bricks. ...read more.


There were new industries establishing at this time. For example, a growing service and servants for big houses/ middle class. Tertiary jobs were being made too, like doctors/nurses, teachers, lawyers, shop assistants. (In the late 1880's sunderland's first department store was opened). However, we still had the stoneyard at this time which shows people were still quarrying. By 1897 we had a well established network of streets and roads. In 1987, Durham road was re-aligned to give a more direct route to sunderland. A tram way was also built and linked on to New Durham Road. The North Eastern railway is still eveident on the map. In map C thereis hardly any fields left and most of the land has been used up by housing. Beresford park north was built, (an extension on Beresford Park). These houses are semi-detached and were for the middle class. Oaklea was transformed into the convent of mercy (in 1914/1915) after it was bought in 1909 by the sisters of mercy from George Clark (a shipbuilder). There was a Sunday school was opened next to the Methodist chapel. An institute was built next to the union congregationist church and offered evening classes to workers. ...read more.


On the 1897 map we can see large middle class detached houses of Somerleyton, Westburn, Oaklea and Holm Lea. When we look at the 1941 map, we can see that Oaklea has become St. Anthony's convent of mercy. The nuns had bought oaklea in 1909. around 1914/15, the convent was built. Close to it, the Montessori School was built (1922). It was the first school of its kind in the north of England and was visited by maria Montessori herself. In subsequent years to follow, the sisters of mercy bought surrounding detached houses. Somerleyton was bought in 1926 from Fred Taylor, Westburn was bought in 1938 from George Short, and Holm Lea was bought in 1940 from the Vaux sisters. Today, Sunderland has city status. This area has undergone a massive amount of change. Famous shipyards and monkwearmouth coalpit have closed. Mayfair toffee factory on the map has also closed down. Other industries have replaced these. E.g. Nissan car factory and many jobs provided in extension to Sunderland's shopping centre. Sunderland university has also extended, with many new buildings on the riverside. The area on the map has many large terraced houses turned into student accommodation. Much of the area on the map in 1941 is still recognisable despite modernisation. ...read more.

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