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# How did Marx conceive the transition from capitalism to communism?

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Introduction

Road Rage Reactions in Drivers 1. This experiment aimed to investigate road rage reactions in drivers. It used a 2x2 independent group's factorial design. The independent variables were vehicle status and participant gender. The dependent variables were the duration of any verbal road rage reactions made by participants, participants questionnaire scores on the Propensity to Angry Driving Scale and participants heart rate's before and after the experiment. The main hypothesis is that duration of verbal road rage reactions will be affected as a result of participant gender and/or the status of the confederate's vehicle. 2. A 2-way ANOVA for independent groups was conducted to determine the effect of gender and vehicle status on the duration of p's road rage responses. Levene's test of equality of error variances was first carried out on the data, as this was not significant we can assume that the variances of the different conditions are similar and thus the subsequent ANOVA output may be used. Levene's Test of Equality of Error Variances Dependent Variable: DURATION F df1 df2 Sig. 1.531 3 12 .257 Tests the null hypothesis that the error variance of the dependent variable is equal across groups. A Design: Intercept+STATUS+GENDER+STATUS * GENDER Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Dependent Variable: DURATION Source Type III Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig. ...read more.

Middle

Figure 2 shows support for this hypothesis - as duration spent road raging increases so does PADS score - demonstrating a positive relationship. A Pearson correlation was used to test the significance of this relationship and as shown in Figure 3 it was found to be significant at the 0.01 level. Figure 2. Scattergram of PADS score and Duration spent road raging in seconds. Correlations DURATION PADS DURATION Pearson Correlation 1 .838** Sig. (1-tailed) . .000 N 16 16 PADS Pearson Correlation .838** 1 Sig. (1-tailed) .000 . N 16 16 ** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed). Figure 4. Pearson Correlation between duration and PADS score. These results also demonstrate the validity of the PADS measure - the scale is measuring what it intended to measure. As we would expect the longer the duration of road rage, the angrier the participant seems to have got and as a result a higher PADS score was obtained. In a second analysis to assess the contribution of road rage to increases in participant's heart rate, SPSS compute was used to create a new variable of the difference between participant heart rate prior to the experiment, and participant heart rate after the experiment. Note that if a participant's heart rate is higher after the experiment than before it, the value of hrdecr will be negative. The contribution of this variable is shown in figure 5 below. ...read more.

Conclusion

It seems that males are more likely to spend longer verbalising their road rage reactions, than females, but interestingly this difference is significant only when the vehicle involved is of a high status. This perhaps suggests something about differences between the male and female personality: especially such components as ego and pride, and is perhaps related to evolutionary psychology, where possessions and assets are very valuable to a male when it comes to competition for mates. The experiment has also demonstrated some physical effects of road rage, indicated by the increase in heart rate found for participants after the experiment. Although this difference was not significant in this case, it may be due to methodological flaws and/or the fact that this change in heart rate was not sufficient to provide significance, but should still be considered important. Further investigation into the physical effects would be valuable. The experiment further demonstrated that males became significantly angrier than females following completion of the study, as indicated by higher scores on the PADS scale. This may have implications for real life, in that males may be considered more susceptible to being involved in road rage incidents, and measures could be taken to avoid this. Overall, this experiment has shown that different people react to road rage in very different ways, males can perhaps be considered more volatile in such situations, particularly when the vehicle involved is of a high status and thus perhaps poses some threat. ...read more.

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