• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

In recent years the gender composition of the work force has been changing. Looking at tables 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 what are the basic changes and how are they complicated when ethnicity and age are brought into consideration?

Extracts from this document...


Work and Unemployment 1. In recent years the gender composition of the work force has been changing. Looking at tables 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 what are the basic changes and how are they complicated when ethnicity and age are brought into consideration? 1. In 1971, 26 million of the population, were in employment. In 2001, the number of people in work increased to 29.4 million. Although the number of people in empolyment has increased over the past thirty years, a more significant change, is the increase of women in employment, in relation to men.1971 illustrates only 10 million women worked, compared to 16 million men. The workforce totalled 26 million, but by 2001 the workforce increased to 29.1 million. Male employment had only increase by 200,000, but female representation increased by 2.4 million. Table 1.1 suggests, this trend will continue, with females closing down the gap between male and female employment. Table1.2 focuses on the economic activity rate by ethnic group, gender and age. The table shows that the gap between male and females between the ages of 16 - 64 varies, depending on your ethnic group. Although in table 1.1, results showed the closing gap between males and female in employment, this would only apply to; White, Black Caribbean, Black Africans and Chinese ethnic groups. If you compare the amount of Indian, Pakisatni and Bangladeshi males in employment, against the same ethnic groups, representing female employment, the results show that these ethinic groups have a much wider gap in gender, when relating to employment, i.e. ...read more.


This complicates the picture for an overall fall in unemployment because circumstances differ depending on what type of household you live in and what type of occupation is being looked for. 4. What does table 4 indicate about changes in the numbers of males and females in full and part-time employment since 1987? What accounts for these changes? 4. Since 1987 to 2002 there has been a increase of people in empolyment in every area in both full and part-time occupations reguardless of gender. The greatest increase shown in table 4 is the increase in the amount of women employed in full time work. In 1987 5.5 million women worked full time, this then went on to increase to 6.2 million by the year 2002. Part time employment also sees a steady increase in the female gender. In 1987 4.2 million women worked part-time, by 2002 this figure increased to 5.1 million. The only other significant change is that part-time employment by males has doubled since 1987 from 0.5 million to 1.1 million. After evealuating the evidence I have come to the conclusion that females in part-time and full-time employment are responsible for the overall reduction in unemployment. This could be due to the fact that many of them may never have worked before. Many females were expected to stay at home and care for their childrens and husbands and home needs. ...read more.


Finally looking at promotion opportunities it could be argued that if women are paid less to do the same job, then surely a woman would be more preferable to promote as she would cost less to employ. This is not the case. "Overall, the evidence with respect to the opportunities for promotion for women is that women are less likely to be promoted than men and indeed are concentated in jobs that are less likely to lead to high remuneration and promotion." (Crompton and Sanderson 1990; Evetts, 1994). Women experience both horixontal and vertical labour market segmentation as previously discussed. Furthermore, when an occupation seems to be seen as 'a female one' it will decline in job status. However men will still continue to dominate the senior posts. Evaluating these points has helped me form the conclusion that although working conditions for men and women have grown similar over the past 30 years compared to how they once were, men and women still firmly face diffences in the employment market. Although women's circumstances in employment have started to improve there is still a long way to go and unless the issues discussed above are dealt with then the gendered division in labour will continue preventing any fundemental change in repect of work. Finally in conclusion even if gender inequality was iradicated we would still be faced with problems in areas of age, ethnicity and class, therefore it may be better to address all the areas collectivly rather than individually. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification essays

  1. How has the family changed over the last 100 years

    Family members got only time to be together on weekends, since all of them are working. They are more interested in their own personal life's and prefer to hang out with friends more then their own brothers and sisters. The media has a huge influence on people, especially the TV

  2. Is the Underachievement of Ethnic Minority Children due to a Racist School System?

    So it has to be more that the families influence to such a gap in educational achievement I went to ask if he believed that the concept that ethnic minority groups are any less intelligent has any validly, " The underachievement of Black and Indian minority groups is not because

  1. How do the three factors of class, gender and ethnicity affect achievement in education?

    traditional manual labour jobs like their fathers had, but as there is a decline in these types of jobs, boys are struggling to conform to new types of jobs such as administrative roles, which are regarded as feminine. Therefore many boys will not be as determined to succeed whereas girls

  2. Assess the causes and consequences of changes in the UK population

    Children have become an economic liability because of their inability to work at an early age, making them dependent on their parents. The reasons for this are that laws have been brought in banning child labour, introducing compulsory schooling and school leaving age and also a change in social norms,

  1. Demographic changes

    live until the age of 81 years and men until the age of 76, these changes are drastic considering that in 1901 for a female it was the age of 49.0 years and for a male it was 45.5. Thirdly, a more light hearted side to changes in our countries demographics is the 'ageing population' and 'family size'.

  2. Examine the reasons for changes in the patterns of marriage, divorce and cohabitation over ...

    Now, women have their own stable careers with a good wage, and thus do not have to be unhappily married because they are financially dependent on their husband. Feminists note that women's expectations of marriage have radically changed, compared with previous generations.

  1. Which has the greatest impact on educational attainment – gender, social class or ethnicity?

    They conducted a national study of children born in one week in 1958. From their results they claimed that factors such as large families, low income and poor housing all influenced attainment; children from poorer homes suffer physical deprivation, this in turn effects their school progress; e.g.

  2. The issue of two interwoven entities - personal identity and ethnicity

    The first hypothesis I am going to test is this connecting the shape of personal identities with the ethnic ideologies accepted. Therefore, in the following section, I concentrate on the basic types of ethnic ideologies. At this point, it is important to remark that in the following the concept of

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work