law and order
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Jack the Ripper. Describe Law and Order in London in the late Nineteenth Century. There was a huge change in law and order in the late 19th century, to being very successful and crime rate dramatically going down. There were only two police forces in Britain, before the Metropolitan Police Force was set up in 1829, the Thames River Police Force and the Bow Street Runners. Towns and cities were growing rapidly and the system could not cope. The main turning point came in policing when Sir Robert Peel, the home secretary, was convinced of the need for a police force and set up the Metropolitan Police Force. Peel's ideas had a huge affect on police forces and still exist today. The police became known as 'Bobbies' and 'peelers' after there founder Sir Robert Peel. The streets of many British towns and cites would be patrolled by the watchmen and parish constables before the Metropolitan Police Force came about. The watchmen and the parish constables would keep an eye out for trouble and prevented disturbances and would keep it well under control because they knew the people and the town well, however they couldn't deal with the big things, like riots, which were common in parts of Britain. Image of Sir Robert Peel. The British people disliked seeing red coats because it was the colour of the army.
Demands in the House of Commons for inquiries into police actions, they were now seen as favoring the middle and upper classes against the poor and working classes. In 1885, they showed that the strength of the Metropolitan Police Force was 13,319 men, while the population of London at the time was 5,255,069. However, shockingly 13,319 of the men, only 1,383 officers were available for beat duty at any time. Crime and Punishment. In the nineteenth century crime was a major problem. 75% of recorded crimes were minor crimes such as theft, only 10% of crimes involved violence. Murders were rare, but usually if there was a murder, the murderer and the victim would know each other. 1750-1810 crimes gradually increased, 1810-20 crimes rapidly increased. This may be because the end of the French wars led to increased poverty and unemployment, increased crime, and many protests against rising food prices and unemployment. Crimes started to fall from 1850-1900; this was because people feared crime, particularly among the ruling classes and middle classes. In the early centuries the government responded to rising crime and increased fear of crime by making punishment even more savage. Most of the criminals were men in fact 75% was men and mostly in their teens and twenties. In 1806 Sir Samuel Romilly entered Parliament. Romilly stopped people being executed for small crimes like pick- pocketing.
Reformers such as Howard wanted significant changes in prisons, such as: * Running water. * Clean and hygienic conditions. * Each prison to have a docter. * Prisons to provide the same foods for all prisoners instead of allowing prisoners to buy food. * The end of fees paid to gaolers. * Regular visits to prisoners from churchmen. * Prisoners should work hard. In 1817 elizabeth Fry formed the Association for the Improvement of Female Prisoners in Newgate. These changes were made at Newgate and were later introduced in other prisons: * Rules for women to obey * Female warders * Regular work for women She made other changes to in 1822 it was compulsory to have women warders in women's prisons. In conclusion, in the nineteenth century I have realized that crime rates were much higher because there were only two police forces. The Metropolitan Police Force had a huge affect on stopping crime; it was the reason for policing preventions and discoveries. The police force in the nineteenth century was discovering many ways to prevent crime. They were dealing more with trying to prevent crime that solving it. There was a rise in theft and a fall in street crimes, punishments were becoming fairer and were fitting with the crime. The second half of the nineteenth century a lot of work was done on what to do with punishments, safer prisons and equal punishments were made. Street crime was being prevented by taking criminals of the streets to stop them committing more crimes. Katharine Brown. 10D
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