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Life-chances , of life expectancy for women, Patters of differing life chances for men and women in British society

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1) Explain the full meaning of the term life-chances. Life chances are opportunities each individual has to improve his or her quality of life. Max Weber first introduced this concept. Class and status sometimes affect life chances. Weber used status group as an element of social stratification distinct from class. This was to describe how a certain group differed from other social groups using things such as ethnicity, parts of status. R Linton defined Status as a position in the social system, for example: 'child' or 'parent'. This definition implies that status just refers to what a person is. Status is also understood as the unequal distribution of "rank" or social standing and is logically distinct from class. It is to do with one's common life-style and focuses more on life-style rather than economic position. Class is another central term in sociology. Marx defines class as an economic relationship based on production relations. He stated that class action is expected (although contained) and class struggle is a motor of history. He also stated that class relationships are grounded in misuse (exploitation). ...read more.


Still, women today spend more time with the children than their fathers. This inequality over the time spent with the children in the home is gradually balancing, although compulsory schooling since 1880 and particularly since 1994 has reduced the time necessary for the care and supervision of children in the family. This has given women with children a greater opportunity to go out to work then earlier in the twentieth century. Women are becoming more independent because they feel that they don't need a partner to take care of them financially because of how society has changed throughout these years. However, a very obvious reason for life expectancy for women and men in this case, is that the projected life expectancy continues to rise with every new medical discovery. Meaning men and women are living long enough to become senior citizens. The reasons for the difference between male and female life expectancy are not fully understood. While some sociologists argue that women are biologically superior to men and therefore live longer, others argue that men are employed in more hazardous occupations (factories, military service, etc). ...read more.


Whilst men generally enjoy a greater range of work opportunities, more status and more pay, there is evidence of change in the experience of work for some men, particularly working class men. This change is caused by economic recession and unemployment in traditional industries and manufacturing. Some writers suggest that this has led some men to feel frustrated at their inability to fulfill their traditional role as breadwinner and protector. Women are, and have been, entering the workplace in rapid numbers. Although some women may face workplace discrimination, evidence shows that middle- and upper-class women are prospering. In the past 30 years, the number of female workers in the UK rose by 2.45 million whereas the number of male workers rose by only 0.5 million. Although the numbers of males and females in employment have been evening out, there are still significant differences in the distribution of male and female workers throughout the occupational structure. Additionally, women have been more independent throughout this decade because of more opportunities. They feel that they do not need a man to rely on as much as before because of a less gender inequality. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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