• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Literature Review: The Impact of Heroin Prices on Robbery Trends

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Literature Review: The Impact of Heroin Prices on Robbery Trends Introduction In Australia, as in other western countries, illicit drug users often resort to crime in order to fund their habit. Heroin dependence has been a major factor in the escalation of robbery over the past four decades and there is a strong link between the rising price of heroin and increase in property crime1. Research has revealed that drug treatment, such as methadone clinics, has proved effective in decreasing the robbery rate; however there is a lack of literature on whether a decrease in the price of heroin would cause this decline. If the Australian Government were to legalise heroin, pure heroin would be available at a very low price in order to cut out the black market.2 Heroin would thus decrease in price by approximately 50 per cent.3 However, there is a lack of information available on whether this price decrease would subsequently reduce the property crime rate. Therefore, this literature review will be focused on four areas: 1. The link between drugs and crime 2. Why dependent heroin users commit crimes 3. The price of heroin and its effect on the crime rate 4. The effect that lower heroin prices would have on the crime rate 1. The link between drugs and crime There is an abundance of evidence which clearly reveals that dependent drug use and crime are causally connected. Maher et al states that in a sample of 202 heroin users, 70 per cent indicated that they derived a portion of their income from acquisitive property crime, which includes burglary, shoplifting and un-armed street robberies. ...read more.

Middle

Chilvers and Weatherburn discuss this problem, stating that there is a significant lack of national and international literature available on the price of heroin and its effect on the crime rate.24 Therefore, minimal research is available in this field. Despite this, the article by Donnelly et al was very thorough and provided evidence of this trend in Cabramatta and in New South Wales. Moreover, this article provided information on the method chosen and the exact formulas that were used to generate the conclusion that the steep price increase that occurred during Christmas 2000 was the determinative factor for the increase in robbery. 4. The effect that lower heroin prices would have on the crime rate Only three authors raise the issue of whether a decrease in the price of heroin would lead to a decline in the crime rate. Mukherjee stated that it is the high cost of heroin that causes addicts to commit crime, and 'the implication is, therefore, that a decrease in price may result in a decrease in property crime.'25 However, he fails to substantiate this; rather he merely notes that there has been an increase in the price of heroin, and an increase in robbery rates. He does not discuss this issue further, nor does he generate a conclusion as to why this may occur. The two other articles commissioned the Salvation Army26 and the Dutch Drug Policy Foundation,27 discuss legalisation and its impact on the price of heroin and crime. However, because they are exploring the effect of legalisation on the crime rate, they fail to adequately explore the issue of price of heroin and its correlation with the crime rate. ...read more.

Conclusion

(2001), The Federation Press, Sydney, at 1079. 12 Mukherjee, S. and Jorgensen, L. (n 7) 13 Mukherjee, S. and Jorgensen, L. (n 7) 14 Maher, L. Dixon, D. Lynskey, M. and Hall, W. (n 4) at 1078. 15 Maher, L. Dixon, D. Lynskey, M. and Hall, W. (n 4) 16 McBride, D. and McCoy, C. (n 8) 17 The heroin drought of 2000 will be further discussed in Section 3. Donnelly, N, Weatherburn, D. and Chilvers, M. (2004), The Impact of the Australian Heroin Shortage on Robbery in NSW, NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research, Sydney. 18 The Salvation Army Rehabilitation Services Command and Community Relations Department, (n 9) 19 Packer, H, The Limits of the Criminal Sanction, (1968) in Brown, D. et al, Criminal Laws: Material and Commentary on Criminal Law and the Process of Law in NSW. (2001), The Federation Press, Sydney, at 1083. 20 Packer, H, (n 19) 21 Donnelly, N, Weatherburn, D. and Chilvers, M. (n 17) 22 Donnelly, N, Weatherburn, D. and Chilvers, M. (n 17) 23 Chilvers, M. and Weatherburn, D. (n 1) 24 Chilvers, M. and Weatherburn, D. (n 1) 25 Mukherjee, S. and Jorgensen, L. (n 7) at 228. 26 The Salvation Army Rehabilitation Services Command and Community Relations Department, (n 9) 27 Van der Haar, J, (n 3) 28 These are the two most recent examples of numerous countries that have been trialing various heroin treatment programs. The Salvation Army Rehabilitation Services Command and Community Relations Department, (n 9) 29 Chilvers, M. and Weatherburn, D. (n 1) 30 Chilvers, M. and Weatherburn, D. (n 1) Elizabeth Herbert - 40328104 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Crime & Deviance section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Crime & Deviance essays

  1. Free essay

    local trends in crime in Britain

    According to Young (1975) the social world is complex and constantly changing. Theories that apply now may be redundant in the future. What works for one type of crime may not work for another. Therefore, a flexible theory is needed to be able to deal with a changing world and the different aspects of crime.

  2. This research project attempts to contrast local crime trends with the British Crime Survey ...

    Generally, those that were unconcerned lived in one of the Island more rural areas. This corresponds to Lea and Taylor's suggestion that fear of crime is higher for urban dwellers. Figure 4 The respondents were asked if they felt that the Isle of Wight was safer than Mainland Britain in relation to crime?

  1. Examine the main trends in the birth and death rates in the UK since ...

    If woman get pregnant accidently, it is now easier and more socially acceptable to get access to abortions, and contraception - meaning that woman have more control of their fertility. The fall in the birth rate is also because of the decline in the infant mortality rate (IMR), the IMR

  2. Drawing on examples from your reading, explore the medias impact on the fear of ...

    Also, the media's labelling of the protesters as a 'mob' (Daily Mail, 02/04/1990, Prison Mob 'Hang Cop') reduced their chances of their wants of the protest being met and by applying Becker's labelling theory to this name, it could have resulted in them beginning to act like a mob which

  1. This paper attempts to analyse Bacceria's (1764) "On Crimes and Punishment" article. In order ...

    Beccaria removed all spiritual elements from his explanation of crime. As his ideas were quiet radical at the time, he was required to publish his book anonymously and defended himself against charges that he was an unbeliever or a revolutionary.

  2. Inequalities within the 'Criminal JUSTICE System/Process'

    his spouse in a fit of jealousy is rarely assessed by criminal justice personnel as being as dangerous as the man who abducts and kills a child. This is reflected in sentencing and release decisions eg: the imposition of a 200 hour community service order on a man in Scotland

  1. Crime in the National Press

    both genders, however the secondary readership (those who read the same paper second) will be predominantly female, due to the nature of the articles and supplements contained within the newspaper. I would also suggest that the Daily Mail is a 'family publication' and therefore crime stories will not go into too much graphic detail when describing a case.

  2. It has been claimed that hate crimes are an 'Orwellian response to prejudice'. How ...

    They were not previously classified as a racial group under racially aggravated offences. Hate crime laws in the United States vary between different states and juristictions, but most states provide an increased punishment for crimes motivated by hate which excesses the punishment given for the same crimes motivated by other reasons.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work