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Major Theories in Sociology

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´╗┐SCIENCE SOCIOLOGY AND COMMONSENSE Science is non-ethical in the sense that it deals with the study of events as they are and not what they should be. A scientist has no technique by which he can determine what the ultimate values of society should be. The knowledge attained by him is instrumental. Some people think of science as a particular knowledge and some think of it as particular method to investigate natural phenomenon. The results of these methods are available for everyone to use and to check so they are authentic and valuable. Sociology studies society and human behaviour, it uses systematic methods of investigation to build theory about social structure and it activity. Common sense is based on a person?s own experience and the manner he understands it. Common sense is not based on any sort of method of investigation; it can be hearsay, based on lies, imaginary and factionary. It is more prone to change and has not evidentiary value. It can never be used as a source of reference as it lacks in validity and authenticity. The main difference between science and sociology is that sociology is a branch of science and derives all its methods of investigation from it, where as common sense is in absolute contrast with these two. Common sense has no roots hence has no means of authenticating it. PAGE:1 POSITIVISM AND INTERPRETIVISM August Comte believed that the facts in society can be used by physical scientists for the study of their subject with the objective that the society can be understood in a scientific manner. ...read more.


Burn the Bra movement gave this struggle a new dimension. Equal Pay Act was introduced in 1970 as women worked more than men but were paid less. England is a society where feminism took birth but in itself there has been only one female Prime Minister. All top jobs are with men. Feminism enabled women to write about women, raised and highlighted the topic of gender inequalities with in society. Feminism gives women the right to choose for themselves in all areas of life including reproduction, employment, sex etc. This movement gave women the quality at work due to which life of children and families improved. As opposed to functionalism, as it talks about only specific section of society that is woman and totally ignores other components of social system. It only lay stress on the right of white women and ignores issues relating to minority women as of race, ethnicity, disability etc. It brainwashes women to the point of thinking that all men are bad. It exerts more pressure on women economically. The method used by radical feminists can cause death as well. The similarity between Marxism and Feminism is that these both are the theories of conflict, in which one is opposed to class segregation whereas the other gender conflict. But both take stand for oppressed and ignored sections of society without whom social system would lead to chaos and destabilization. PAGE:4 Functionalism is a theory that explains socials institutions as combine method of fulfilling basic needs of individuals. ...read more.


It was unsafe, low wages, bad treatment and exploitation was everywhere. Living conditions were very bad. Houses were joined together back to back, without access to fresh air. People were provided accommodation by the owner of factory. Opposite to this was the life of Bourgeoisie. According to Marx this class conflict leads to protests, unions, strikes. The proletariat organise themselves which is followed by revolution. A new type of society takes birth which is communist in nature. Communism means working together and redistribution of resources. In a shared ownership all share the profits equally. PAGE:6 It would just become a super structure working together. Then there would not be any poor or rich class. The strengths of Marxism is its belief in equality, it does not advocate a need or desire for power, poverty is reduced by it. It gives people more rights and alienates middle class from its system. The biggest negative of Marxism is that it has been badly misused. As countries which have employed it so far like China, USSR, Cuba, North Korea, Japan, Laos do not offer freedom of speech and do not believe in religion. It causes tension between the classes. It brain washes society. It totally ignores the role of women but later on classes of Marxism developed. It idealises a view of happy family. Marxists say that family serves the needs of ruling class, whereas feminists say that it meets the needs of men only. Marcism is a theory of conflict, in which one section of society is at odds with the other where as the theory of functionalism is absolutely different as it presents an altogether harmonious view. ...read more.

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