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AS and A Level: Media

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 1
  1. How is Crime represented in the Media

    which makes them consider the effect their behaviour might have on people they love. Young people have fewer social responsibilities which means any conviction will have less impact on others (such as young children). Middle and upper class youth have fewer opportunities for crime because they are more-likely to be in full-time education up to age of 21 / 22 than working class youth. It has been that youth commit a lot more crime because of a lack of social control.

    • Word count: 5008
  2. How does the media represent female bodies?

    Also researchers need to be careful not to influence responses by asking leading questions. While carrying out my content analysis I might encounter some problems for example how to ensure I get a mix of magazines, (celebrity magazines, lad's magazines etc). An incorrect balance could undermine the results of the research. I have many questions I would like to ask whilst researching this topic but to answer many of them will not be possible with my small scale piece of research.

    • Word count: 5982
  3. I am going to examine how mass media representations of homosexuality have changed over time whilst looking closely at the text 'Will and Grace'. After the termination of the ABC sitcom, 'Ellen', it didn't seem like there was

    'Will is masculine without machismo but with a hint of camp' (Queer (UN) Friendly Film and Television, James R. Keller). Jack is his exact opposite; he is flamboyant in both word and deed and he is highly effeminate. The difference in their characters is made more obvious through the mis-en-scene. Will is usually seen in darker clothe colours usually dark blue, grey or black whilst Jack is in lighter colours, usually sky blue. Will's characters steers away from the usual stereotypes of gay men.

    • Word count: 3451
  4. Do the Media have the power to shape public opinion?

    He has developed a theory of three types of communication, which interact with each other instead of the domination of one type, as Habermas would propose. More empirically based studies are those of Katz and Lazarsfeld and Mc Combs and Shaw. The former have developed a 'two-step flow' theory of communication that has found that the influence of 'primary group' or 'opinion leaders' has much more impact upon others than the media has. The latter, through a study of undecided voters, found that an 'agenda setting function' is much more plausible idea of media influence than an influence of telling people what to think.

    • Word count: 3437
  5. "Any sociological explanation of the influence of the mass media needs to take into account the social situation of the audien

    First, opinion leaders who pay close attention to the mass media and its messages, receive the information. Then, opinion leaders pass on their own interpretations in addition to the actual media content to the individuals (less active sections in the society). Since individuals are exposed to the media, there would be more likelihood for us to be influenced to the content formed by opinion leaders. It also helped explain why certain media campaigns may have failed to alter audience attitudes & behavior. This shows that the media can have little effect on people's opinion. It also emphasises the importance of relationships within the society.

    • Word count: 3239
  6. Cultural and Media Analysis

    It is also contended that modern media portrayal no longer represses the face of the new man, while publically acknowledging the patriarchal man as an aspiration. Making particular reference to the misogynistic elements of Hip Hop music and contemporary films to articulate a growing mysogionistic tendancy, but also highlighting the indistint macro nature of ideals within post modernity I wish to show that while elemets of what Rutherford states are still true. The definitions surrounding masculinity are not so clear cut.

    • Word count: 3219
  7. To what extent do media representations of refugees and asylum seekers limit their integration within society?

    This essay aims to explore this concern, examining the extent to which the media are responsible for limiting the integration of refugees and asylum seekers within society. The essay will firstly examine the official definitions of the terms 'refugee' and 'asylum seeker', it will then explore the role of the media in influencing thoughts and behaviour, before examining, in terms of their official definitions, whether the media represent refugees and asylum seekers favourably or unfavourably. This examination will draw upon examples of positive and negative reporting in the press.

    • Word count: 3793
  8. "Does the Mass Media Influence Youth Culture?"

    . Hypothesis The question I have been posed asks: "Does the mass media influence youth culture?" Through a series of questionnaires, surveys, and experiments, I hope to be able to provide as accurate an answer as possible to this question. However, before I even begin to obtain any evidence I can hazard a guess as to what the outcome of my investigation will be. Having briefly explored in my introduction the power the media already wielded some sixty years ago, I think that it is inconceivable that any age group - be they young or old - are not at all influenced by the mass media today.

    • Word count: 3808
  9. Does violence in the media effect peoples behaviours and opinions?

    Most of this models research has been directed on the effects of the cinema on children. This model has been influential as it draws upon pre-existing social ideas about changing family values and less sense of belonging after industrialisation. This made people, especially the young highly susceptible to the effects of media violence. This model is also useful as it agreed with the long-standing view 'that all human behaviour was a conditioned reflex to a stimulus' This model showed that social behaviour can be effected by the surrounding social environment. However this model assumes that all audiences are passive recipients and have no control whether they are manipulated or not.

    • Word count: 4506
  10. Explain and Discuss Moral Panics.

    The issue of television violence reflects the broader concerns of the nature of society and its apparent collapse. The underlying causes of many moral panics have little, if anything, to do with the subject or event with which they focus their concern. As Furedi argues, children have in the past killed other children, yet the death of James Bulger provoked a reaction previously never seen before by the British public. Despite the fact that such killings remain extremely rare the story, largely due to its portrayal by the media, led to the view that all children were now at risk from one another, and that access to certain films could produce child murderers (Furedi, 1994, p.3).

    • Word count: 3824
  11. Are we influenced by TV and film? Briefly discuss the evidence and arguments for and against censorship.

    Mary Whitehouse was a leading campaigner in the fight to censor violence on television. On the 5th May 1964, she said, 'If violence is shown as normal on the television screen, it will help to create a violent society', and believed that the unprecedented levels of social and criminal violence in western society was caused by the saturation of violent crime on television. In 1963 she launched a 'Clean-Up TV Campaign', and obtained half a million signatures on a petition, which she presented to the Governors of the BBC.

    • Word count: 3277
  12. Discuss the representation of females in the media, and what if anything, should be done about this?

    Therefore humans will continue to stereotype whether we like it or not. The media uses stereotypes in order to relate to audiences. However, gender based stereotypes towards women in the media should be changed, but how? When the media changes perhaps the stereotypes of women in real life will also begin to alter... According to Gunter stereotyping can be divided into sex role stereotyping and sex trait stereotyping. Sex role stereotyping of a female is, for example, the beliefs held about the value of the family and the role of a woman in society.

    • Word count: 3430
  13. Moral Panic and media folk devils.

    I am also interested in social class and how social class has affect on different aspects of society. As a part of a working class family I want to see how other people who are in the same area are affected by these subjects in comparison to myself. I do not think my situation will be common as I do not watch much television or read newspapers and will not have great exposure to the media. My belief is that most people in a working class society will have great exposure to media because of the culture that they surround themselves with television and radio (both having news reports)

    • Word count: 9883
  14. To what extent do the media effects an individual's self-identity?

    However, they do differ in their emphasis: Liberal feminists believe that the situation is improving as the number of female editors and journalists increase. Social and Marxist feminists believe that the stereotypical portrayals of women are a by-product of the need to make a profit. Radical feminists stress that the media reproduces patriarchy. They think that traditional ideologies are used by the male-dominated media to keep women oppressed in a narrow range of roles. The perspective I am intending to take continues from research conducted by one particular feminist sociologist, Marjorie Ferguson, who conducted a content analysis on women's magazines

    • Word count: 3844
  15. How Media, Advertising and Celebrity Culture Affects Female Body Image

    Body dissatisfaction is a person?s negative thoughts about his or her own body. Women have always been encouraged to change their shape and weight to conform to current trends and it is often argued that failure to do so leads to self-criticism, feelings of guilt and lowered self-worth, a strong effect amongst women due to the cultural pressures of the idealised body shape. Body dissatisfaction is the norm in western women from as young as eight years old (Grogan S, 1999, p.3)

    • Word count: 3797
  16. Media and The Sexualization of Young Girls

    Where prime time shows contain elements of under aged sex and sexual violence. Toddlers playing with dolls dressed in fishnets and miniskirts. We are constantly assaulted with the message that youth is ?hotness? and ?hotness? is essential. These media depictions counteract healthy, progressive ideas of female sexuality. Instead they?re teaching young girls to undermine themselves and embracing low self esteem. They push girls to devalue their bodies, intellect, and abilities, and to believe that there is no such thing as female sexual empowerment. They encourage girls to advertently make themselves more vulnerable to sexual violence and exploitation.

    • Word count: 4349
  17. To what extent does the Media affect body image in teens and their perception of beauty?

    front cover advertising ?45 best & worst beach bodies?[6] seven times.[7] I believe that this is going to contribute to women having a negative body image as they constantly compare themselves to the celebrities in these magazines and deciding whether they have an ?acceptable figure? due to the ones advertised as the ?best?. Personally, I think it?s the mix of women?s obsession with celebrities and a low self-esteem that creates a negative body image. Approximately one in every one hundred teenage girls may develop an Eating Disorder.[8] Body dissatisfaction is a reoccurring motif especially in women as they are constantly exposed to celebrities and advertisements from such a young age.

    • Word count: 3449

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • Assess the pluralists view on media ownership

    "In conclusion its fair to say that both Pluralism and Marxism share a great deal of similar interests as they both contain issues of power and distribution, but where Marxists believe that there are the bourgeoisies controlling the working classes, Pluralists argue that everyone has a say in the media and that power is equal amongst all of us. Furthermore with this in mind Pluralists believe that the media does not represent the view of one person but in fact represents the views of many and has a diversity of messages from different medias. But again there is a fault in this as in America it was reported that there should be over 2,500 different media sources yet in fact there are only 10, therefore proving that there are 10 major companies [bourgeoisies]owning a variety of smaller [proletariat]businesses. Time spent writing: 23 minutes Preparation time 10 minutes Stephen Hooper"

  • Ireland has a long history of censorship but this has been employed for different reasons in different periods. Compare the political and cultural motivations behind two different periods of censorship since 1922.

    "Conclusion This essay argues that the main motivation behind the 1929 censorship was the Church while the censorship during the Emergency was driven by political motivations. Other motivations such as nationalism and anti-communism were also responsible for censorship during these two periods, though to a lesser degree. It is obvious that the Church was not a protagonist during the Emergency as the Catholic Hierarchy were themselves censored. However, there were political motivations behind both periods of censorship and it is evident that the government's role became stronger as the church's role diminished."

  • Assess the view that the mass media perpetuates stereotypes of ethnic minorities

    "After I have looked at ball of the studies I have come to a conclusion of the question first asked, and I believe that stereotypes have been mainly carried on, but with some improvements. I believe that, now instead of just seeing negative stereotyping we are seeing more and more examples of positive stereotyping such as more positive/ high status roles in the media, we are seeing more black athletes and musicians and we also see more black presenters in the media. I strongly agree with Alvarado and his 4 categories. We still see these 4 categories in every day media; * Pitied- appears in the news * Humorous- appears in comedies (e.g. Bo-selcta, Kumar's at No42) * Dangerous- appears on the news (e.g. stories on terrorism and violence) * Exotic- appears in holiday shows. Although I also believe that improvement is needed amongst ethnic groups in the media."

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