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AS and A Level: Media
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- Marked by Teachers essays 1
Cultural pessimists argue new media is still run by and for the benefit of major corporations. JENKINS argues cross-media ownership benefits big media companies. The Internet is dominated by a small number of media companies like AOL (owned by Time Warner), which is US main Internet service provider. Most of the Internet is controlled by the big entertainment, press, telecommunications companies, making it easy for them to cross-promote products. CURRAN found that ¾ of most visited news websites are affiliated with the largest media corporations. Cultural pessimists thus criticise new media for still being based around consumption and profit-making.
- Word count: 889
However, he acknowledges that contraception is seen as female responsibility, while men are seen as pursuers of women. Representation of gay teenagers is extremely limited, although there are positive tendencies. More importantly, sexually active girls are represented as a problem and are usually a subject of moral panics, whereas boys are represented as naturally sexually active, which signifies existence of double standards in representations of sexuality. Homosexuality is increasingly visible in the media, signifying gradual shift in attitudes towards homosexuality, according to GAUNTLETT.
- Word count: 911
PM argue the society today is media-saturated. BAUDRILLARD argues the media messages dominate and distort the perception of the world. People live media-led virtual lives, spending time on social networks (eg. Twitter) or playing such video games as Second Life. Media-saturated society had created increasing uncertainty in the world by making it hard to discern reality from fantasy. BAUDRILLARD notes people are bombarded with the mass media daily. As a result, the media define our sense of reality and self-perception. To support, BAUMANN suggests people live in a liquid modernity, where we base our identity around consumption, and pick n mix identities.
- Word count: 729
Moreover, OFCOM regulations further prevent any one company dominating the market. Furthermore, Pluralists argue that increasing concentration of media ownership is a positive notion. Such trends as vertical integration (1 company controls several stages of media production), horizontal integration (1 company controls diverse range of media) or synergy (integration of different media forms) reduce costs of producing media output, allowing the owners to take a risk of producing diverse content without fear to lose profit. However, Marxists argue such trends reflect monopolisation as one company controls the stages of production and output of the media, leading to less competition ? the opposite of what Pluralists argue.
- Word count: 1026