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AS and A Level: Media
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When a country is at war, few can argue that a certain degree of censorship is required. It is necessary to limit the public's access to sensitive material concerning the war, such as strategies and the details of conferences, so the enemy cannot use the information to their advantage. While this form of censorship is understandable, it presents the problem of too much information being held back making the state totally in control, and the possible cover-up of a government faux-pas.
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However, they do differ in their emphasis: Liberal feminists believe that the situation is improving as the number of female editors and journalists increase. Social and Marxist feminists believe that the stereotypical portrayals of women are a by-product of the need to make a profit. Radical feminists stress that the media reproduces patriarchy. They think that traditional ideologies are used by the male-dominated media to keep women oppressed in a narrow range of roles. The perspective I am intending to take continues from research conducted by one particular feminist sociologist, Marjorie Ferguson, who conducted a content analysis on women's magazines
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I conveyed my attitude towards asylum seekers and refugees by taking part in an attitude continuum. I place myself in the number 7 spot 3 places away from being totally sympathetic (10) and 7 spaces away from having a hostile attitude (1). I placed my self here because I believe that as a Christian we should help any one in need and provide refuge for them. However I also feel that we should help the homeless and needy in our own country first.
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It was first shown in 1989, and has been on non-stop ever since. I like it because it is sarcastic and views the world from a totally new angle. It is one of the most popular TV shows of all time, and the lead character, Homer Simpson, was recently voted the greatest TV character of all time. I think I consume this product because it is a good form of escape or diversion and it takes my mind off anything because it takes my primary attention.
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Further more it was found that it was likely the people involved were not aware they were making this judgement; it was determined that this stereotypical judgement had emerged through the development of film, television and magazines a conclusion which directly supports my hypothesis. The concept stereotype literally means 'set image' applied to people the word means an 'instant or fixed' picture of a person or group of people. Stereotypes are usually based on a mistaken or over simplified attitude, opinion or judgement, which the mass media has the ability to exploit.
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Marxist theory, and in particular its use in media analysis, is outmoded in a world where a capitalist consumer culture holds sway. Explain why you agree or disagree with this statement.
Ian Nicholls Page 2 Whether one agrees with Marx's political dimension or not, what is clear is that Marxism presents to us an extremely useful model in which to study the mass media. Though Marx was writing at a time when the main organs of mass media would've essentially meant newspapers and books, Marxist analysis can be applied to today's media: the mass media, a privatized means of production, is there to replicate capitalist ideology and to promote a 'false conciousness' amongst the working class.
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The German ideology is: 'The class, which has the means of material production, has control at the same time of the means of mental production... they regulate the production and distribution of the ideas of their age: thus their ideas are those of the ruling class' Some evidence, which would support this, would be from Lord Beaverbrook who said 'I run the paper purely for the purpose of propaganda, and with no other motive' As with all theories there are strengths and weaknesses for manipulative Marxists there are a few, but some of these strengths are it examines the power wielded by proprietors over the content of their media products.
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They say that women who buy the fashion magazines featuring thin models were as much to blame as the editors and advertisers. "It is a supply and demand thing - advertisers, magazines and agencies supply the image that consumers want to see. Statistics have repeatedly shown that if you stick a beautiful skinny girl on the cover of a magazine you sell more copies." A research carried out in 1999 studied 219 girls aged 13 to 17. The girls were given a 15-month subscription to a magazine and then compared with a similar group who were not allowed to read the magazine.
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The results show that people generally feel a lot more sympathetic, pitiful and patronizing towards disabled people. Sheridan in "A physical challenge for the media: The effects of portrayals of wheel chair users. He says that whilst there are many images of wheelchair users, they are not always accurate or helpful to the disabled community. To portray a wheel chair user in a film is so that they can be used as a dramatic and provocative tool. He states that it is possible to categorise portrayals into four main stereotypes, the pitiful handicapped, the bitter cripple, the inspirational hero and the set dresser.
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Did the BATF and the FBI attempt to cover up agents conduct at the standoff with Branch Davidians in 1993
In concluding this, three prominent issues arise; * Policy and circumstances surrounding the possession of firearms. * Child abuse centred allegations. * The role of the media in the construction of public opinion. However, the official answer that apparently most Americans are willing to accept is that David Koresh was to blame. If he had not been a crazy religious fanatic who was "hell-bent on bringing down the lives of those around him", then the standoff would have ended peacefully.
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Without censorship anything would go any time, So lets have a look at what's on without censorship, the Teletubbies could have great big battles with each other or go hunting and shoot the rabbits and on an educational note they could demonstrate how to skin and gut the rabbits for the kids at home. Later on in the day the Weakest Link could become the nude Weakest Link where Anne Robinson could prance about in a PVC catsuite and give a good old S&M style spanking to the person voted the Weakest link, and I don't think any body wants to Anne Robinson in the Buff?
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The last decade has seen much more relaxation from the BBFC, these points are to be highlighted in this discussion of film censorship today. Rather than banning all films with imagery deemed too hazardous for public viewing directors can be ordered to cut out scenes. The amount of cut film has dropped as society becomes more numbed to graphic sex, violence and drugs. In 1974 40% of all films were cut dropping to 5.4% in 1999 after examination of 4663 videos.
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The article written in 1950, entitled 'wife' immediately appeals to the femininism of the intended audience in both the frequent references to home, husband and looks, and in the eye-catching picture with the title overlaid onto it. In case the readers do not want to study the whole text, the content is summed up in the brief, bold word at the head of the article 'perfect'. Although it is an article implying the passive role of the wife, the very subtle background to the page is a far from stating this as it includes an image of socialising and of a busy lifestyle, even if it is housework.
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Cultural pessimists argue new media is still run by and for the benefit of major corporations. JENKINS argues cross-media ownership benefits big media companies. The Internet is dominated by a small number of media companies like AOL (owned by Time Warner), which is US main Internet service provider. Most of the Internet is controlled by the big entertainment, press, telecommunications companies, making it easy for them to cross-promote products. CURRAN found that ¾ of most visited news websites are affiliated with the largest media corporations. Cultural pessimists thus criticise new media for still being based around consumption and profit-making.
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However, he acknowledges that contraception is seen as female responsibility, while men are seen as pursuers of women. Representation of gay teenagers is extremely limited, although there are positive tendencies. More importantly, sexually active girls are represented as a problem and are usually a subject of moral panics, whereas boys are represented as naturally sexually active, which signifies existence of double standards in representations of sexuality. Homosexuality is increasingly visible in the media, signifying gradual shift in attitudes towards homosexuality, according to GAUNTLETT.
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PM argue the society today is media-saturated. BAUDRILLARD argues the media messages dominate and distort the perception of the world. People live media-led virtual lives, spending time on social networks (eg. Twitter) or playing such video games as Second Life. Media-saturated society had created increasing uncertainty in the world by making it hard to discern reality from fantasy. BAUDRILLARD notes people are bombarded with the mass media daily. As a result, the media define our sense of reality and self-perception. To support, BAUMANN suggests people live in a liquid modernity, where we base our identity around consumption, and pick n mix identities.
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Moreover, OFCOM regulations further prevent any one company dominating the market. Furthermore, Pluralists argue that increasing concentration of media ownership is a positive notion. Such trends as vertical integration (1 company controls several stages of media production), horizontal integration (1 company controls diverse range of media) or synergy (integration of different media forms) reduce costs of producing media output, allowing the owners to take a risk of producing diverse content without fear to lose profit. However, Marxists argue such trends reflect monopolisation as one company controls the stages of production and output of the media, leading to less competition ? the opposite of what Pluralists argue.
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Body dissatisfaction is a person?s negative thoughts about his or her own body. Women have always been encouraged to change their shape and weight to conform to current trends and it is often argued that failure to do so leads to self-criticism, feelings of guilt and lowered self-worth, a strong effect amongst women due to the cultural pressures of the idealised body shape. Body dissatisfaction is the norm in western women from as young as eight years old (Grogan S, 1999, p.3)
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There have always been speculations onto how video games have affected us mentally from the violence that is shown on some games, and physically as exercising is becoming less apparent when you do not have to move your body around, only your hands. Post modernity applies to this as a new way for people to gain skills that apply to everyday life such as reading ? As I may play, some adventure games forces me to read carefully when playing games, and by practise, my reading will improve as reading carefully in video games will help me solve problems which may be untaken in a game.
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Where prime time shows contain elements of under aged sex and sexual violence. Toddlers playing with dolls dressed in fishnets and miniskirts. We are constantly assaulted with the message that youth is ?hotness? and ?hotness? is essential. These media depictions counteract healthy, progressive ideas of female sexuality. Instead they?re teaching young girls to undermine themselves and embracing low self esteem. They push girls to devalue their bodies, intellect, and abilities, and to believe that there is no such thing as female sexual empowerment. They encourage girls to advertently make themselves more vulnerable to sexual violence and exploitation.
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front cover advertising ?45 best & worst beach bodies? seven times. I believe that this is going to contribute to women having a negative body image as they constantly compare themselves to the celebrities in these magazines and deciding whether they have an ?acceptable figure? due to the ones advertised as the ?best?. Personally, I think it?s the mix of women?s obsession with celebrities and a low self-esteem that creates a negative body image. Approximately one in every one hundred teenage girls may develop an Eating Disorder. Body dissatisfaction is a reoccurring motif especially in women as they are constantly exposed to celebrities and advertisements from such a young age.
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This is what I call the Sleeper Curve: the most debased forms of mass diversion?video games and violent television dramas and juvenile sitcoms?turn out to be nutritional after all.? (133) Johnson also stated ?I believe that the Sleeper Curve is the single most important new force altering the mental development of young people today, and I believe it is largely a force for good: enhancing our cognitive faculties, not dumbing them down.? (133) Some of the shows on television can be good, for example educational shows like on the History channel.
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Outline and assess the view that the medias representation of ethnic minorities is becoming more positive.
Bell Hooks (1992), (a feminist), states that there has been a small change in the area of representation. When opening a book or magazine, turning on the television, watching a film or looking at photographs in public spaces, we are most likely to see images of black people reinforce and reinscribe white supremacy. However, Jhally and Lewis (1992) at the so-called ?enlightened racism? of successful ?black? TV programmes such as The Cosby Show ?which tells us nothing about the structures behind success or failure? and ?leaves white viewers to assume that black people who do not measure up to their television counterparts have only themselves to blame.
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Discuss what psychological research has told us about some of the media influences on anti-social behaviour and educational choices.
Philips (1983) examined crime statistics for the 10-day period following televised heavyweight boxing contest, and found a significant rise in the number of murders during that period. (There was no such rise after American football was on.) Bandura?s Social Learning Theory supports the view that children learn specific acts of aggression and also learn increased aggressiveness through imitating models, even when the models are not real people. A group of students has been asked to produce a short film to encourage more school leavers to apply for science degree courses at university instead of arts- based courses.
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This helps to safeguard individuals and society conflict. Functionalists believe that everything in society has a function and that everything has to work together in order to make society harmonious. Other theorists such as Marxists have different views on culture. I will be exploring whether the functionalist theory is what actually happens in society or if other theories, like Marxism, are more closely related. Durkheim believed that the key features of society is orderly and harmonious.
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