• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Most sociologists acknowledge that there is a definite link between location and crime, along with other aspects such as ethnicity and gender and try to link parallels with it.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Most sociologists acknowledge that there is a definite link between location and crime, along with other aspects such as ethnicity and gender and try to link parallels with it. Some theorists, such as Right Realism, believe that crime flourishes in situations where social control breaks down. In all communities there are people that engage in incivilities, e.g. dropping litter or partaking in vandalism, and in most, they are prevented from progressing further with crime as other members hold this in check by their reactions. However, if these incivilities are left unchecked, the entire social order of the areas breaks down and gradually there is a shift toward more frequent and serious crime. James Q Wilson (1982) deduced the Broken Windows Theory to back this view paralleling this to an abandoned building and challenged whether anyone has seen just one window broken; therefore evidencing the flourishing of crime in such areas. Some theories such as Left Realism agree that more crime occurs within Urban areas as stated by Jock Young, however this is in contrast to Right Realists as they then take into account relative deprivation and marginalisation of the people living in that particular area, not simply just geographical area. ...read more.

Middle

Further tightening his approach in order to avoid vagueness criticisms like Shaw & McKay's theory, he stated that definitions vary in frequency, duration, priority, e.g. more influenced during primary socialisation and intensity., ignoring the relationship between geographical area and crime. Not only is this hard to apply to the contemporary UK due to the fact that the theory is not only dated, but more applicable within the USA, as housing policies mirror, in that British research has failed to reproduce the clear pattern of concentric circles that Chicago School has identified. Morris (1957) stated that there was no evidence that people in high areas in high delinquency held a coherent set of values that was any different from that of mainstream society, ignoring the relationship between location and crime, the reason being the council's housing policies in his study of Croydon, the council kept high-problem families together so that almost by definition, it was a high-crime area. To expand on this, applicable to the high-problem zone in Shaw & McKay's theory is the process of 'tipping'. ...read more.

Conclusion

Another theory similar to this was that developed by various sociologists named 'Cognitive Maps'. Patricia and Paul Brantingham, for example, argue that people have different perceptions to others of the area in which they live, depending upon where they live and routes to and from work. Each person then carries in their mind a different image of their city; called a cognitive map. Wiles & Costello extended this further when they studied offenders in Sheffield; finding that offenders on average travelled approximately two miles to commit offences and invariably the area chosen was based on strategic decisions within their routine activities and cognitive maps. In contrast to these, administrative criminology theories such as these have been criticised by Jock Young, as they do not explain why people commit offences within these areas, merely the circumstances that they are more likely to commit them within. Furthermore, it seems illogical that offenders makes calculated decision regarding offending, as some other studies suggest that these are mostly not rational, motivated purely by thrills and the search for excitement, such as that of Katz Pleasure of Crime in the instance of joyriding within contemporary society. ?? ?? ?? ?? Kate Iliff ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Crime & Deviance section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Crime & Deviance essays

  1. Sociological Theories on Crime and Deviance

    At the same time informal controls become less effective as families and communities disintegrate. This, along with rising crime, makes the public more intolerant and leads to demands for harsher formal controls by the state and increased criminalisation of unacceptable behaviour.

  2. New Right Realism & New Left Realism. The realist approach to crime treats crime ...

    They also draw on other theories to get a more accurate picture as to why people commit more crime in certain areas. However, there are negative points to be made about the Left Realist approach. They do not actually offer evidence to support their theory of crime, which makes you wonder if what they are saying is valid.

  1. Evaluate Which of the Three Social Factors (Class, Gender, Ethnicity) has the Greatest Impact ...

    The most common answer to this question is opportunity. If one has the opportunity to commit crime, he/she often will. However, you cannot commit a crime if the correct objects and conditions are not there. (IE. You do not have the opportunity.)

  2. Assess the right realist view that crime is the result of biological rational factors ...

    For example, personality traits such as aggressiveness and risk taking put some people at greater risk of offending. This biological idea is also backed up by Herrnstein and Murray who argues that the main cause of crime is low intelligence, which they also see biologically determined.

  1. Adolescent Males and Juvenile Crime

    what needs to be done to improve investigation, arrest, prosecution, and conviction. Advocates of the public health approach tend to see juveniles today as victims of an anti-youth culture. The problem is not just parents failing children, but a whole attitude among adult society that is increasingly hostile, angry, and punishing toward youth.

  2. Why is the prison population not a reflection of the ethnicity of Britain, is ...

    I also found that 68% of Afro Caribbean's that were asked live in single parent families. This means that perhaps instead of getting there beliefs, values, and norms from home they get them from there peers who will be committing crime.

  1. Crime and Ethnicity

    Also as they are already in high crime areas the young people will do what they see as the norm, which may be to commit crime. Brent crime and disorder audit In the audit of crime it shows that of all of the London boroughs, which has the highest crime rate per thousand people.

  2. Clearly there is a link between alcohol and crime and the government are keen ...

    fixed penalty notices c) To prevent alcohol related violence by i) targeting hotspots ii) developing pub watch whereby local pubs and clubs communicate with police and other establishments to prevent troublemakers moving onto another premise, fore warned is fore armed!

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work