• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Social Class and Identity 1. The working class are associated mainly with the labour party and trade unions

Extracts from this document...


Mrs Young 28th December 2005 Revision of the work by Bowles and Gintis and Paul Willis. 1 2 3 4 (Key Term unsure of: Eclectic) (a) Legitimation is conforming to the laws and rules of society. (b) Wearing uniform is an example of the correspondence principle. Students in school must wear uniform in preparation for the workplace, as some professions require you to wear a particular uniform. Similarly, schools exclude children that badly misbehave or who are not punctual and workplaces fire people who misbehave or break the rules. Therefore school is preparing you for the workplace. (c) Meritocracy teaches that rewards and success come to those who work hard and conform to society. Sociologists Bowels and Gintis believe that this is a myth. They disagree that our education system is run like this. They believe that high grades and success are achieved on a basis of class, gender and culture. ...read more.


They have lost the hostility they once held against capitalism. 2. These are typical working class people; shown here in the soap drama 'Eastenders,' running a market stall. 3. The underclass are different from the working class because they rely on state benefit as their means of financial income. The working class mainly have job security as they do the jobs that are vital to maintain society. Saunders describes the underclass as those who are in badly paid or casual jobs, the unemployed, and single parents. Saunders suggests that the culture and identity of this underclass revolve around being work-shy and dependant on the welfare benefits provided by the state. Not all sociologists believe that there is an underclass. Jordan suggests that those living in poverty have the same views about work and family as everyone else. Research has shown that the poor often feel shame and guilt about having to ask others for help, it is a loss of their dignity. ...read more.


On the other hand, surveys of clerical workers indicated that they see themselves as Middle Class as they rarely mix with manual workers and spend their leisure time and money in quite different ways. 8. According to Mackintosh and Mooney it is hard to identify the upper class. They said ' wealth and privilege are not very visible.' They suggested that we can identify the upper class mainly by how powerful in society they are. 9. Children born into the upper class learn distinct ways of speaking, mannerisms, attitudes, values and ways of seeing the world that clearly distinguish them from other classes. They learn that they have security, control, and power over the lives of others. This lifestyle results in self-confidence and a sense of social superiority. 10. 11. The upper class practices social closure, it is self recruiting in that entry to the class is not the result of merit. Entry is restricted to those with a social background deemed 'worthy' by the upper class. 12. ?? ?? ?? ?? Heather Dennis 12AI ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Work & Leisure section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Work & Leisure essays

  1. 'Education is a tool of the ruling class'- Discuss.

    Bowles and Gintis were the American Marxists who looked into this theory deeply gaining much of their research through studying schooling in capitalist America. They argued that capitalism requires a subservient workforce that is prepared to accept whatever low skilled and paid jobs that is handed to them.

  2. The recent rise in support for NRMS comes mainly from an increased desire to ...

    New religious movements arise during periods of social change, in which traditional norms are disrupted and social relationships lack meaning. An example of this is of the early Methodist movement. Wilson sees the rise of Methodism as the response of the urban working class to the "chaos and uncertainty of life in the newly settled industrial areas".


    The Act allowed parents to send their children to schools of their choice. Critics suggest that this has lead to the creation of a two-tier system of education which the poorer classes suffer. One of the major preoccupations of the sociology of education in its formative years was to demonstrate

  2. Multi-agency working

    Education is seen as an integral part of their intervention and is facilitated through the Connexions personal advisers. YOT and Connexions have agreed data collection systems which define information and communication flows. At a local level they share relevant information when it is necessary to do so in order to

  1. Education and Socialisation

    of a ruling minority rather than of society as whole" (Haralambos and Holborn, 'Sociology Themes and Perspectives', 1995, Pg.729). The fact that teachers are generally middle class themselves could mean that the values being taught in school right away contradict those being taught at home, possibly leaving the child feel confused and unable to live up to conflicting standards.

  2. Describe and Discuss Gender Inequality in Contemporary Society with reference to the Labour Market

    2005 demonstrated, in terms of vertical segregation, that 83% of chief executives, 71% of sales managers and 70% of management consultants were men, whilst 96% of dinner ladies, 95% of receptionists and 76% of cleaners were women (Haralambos&Holborn, 2008, 124).

  1. Should schools require their students to wear a school uniform?

    In institutions without uniform students are often competitive and worry endlessly about their appearance and the clothes they should wear. Pupils without expensive designer clothes and trainers may be singled out as social outcasts, or stigmatised as being from poor backgrounds.

  2. How important is class in voting behaviour?

    This trend should not be exaggerated, however class still remains the single most important social factor underlying the vote." In 1985, the theory of class dealignment came under attack from the Heath thesis which was a book which claimed that the was no evidence that there had been a fall

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work