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AS and A Level: Sociological Differentiation & Stratification

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UK trends - gender

  1. 1 Men tend to outperform women in terms of income, wealth, promotion at work; they are more likely to have full time and /or permanent contracts.
  2. 2 In the home men do less housework than women and are much less likely to suffer domestic violence than women. Men are more likely to have control of finances and power in decision making in the family.
  3. 3 Women have better life chances in terms of life expectancy, preferential treatment by courts when awarding custody of children, some evidence of greater leniency in sentencing, more time off paid work with their children, lower suicide rates and are doing better in schools.

Key UK trends - social class

  1. 1 At work, those in the working class are more likely to have a below average paid job, a temporary contract and work part time.
  2. 2 In terms of policing and the criminal justice system, the working class are more likely to be stopped and searched by the police and to be arrested.
  3. 3 In the family people from working class backgrounds are more likely to marry younger and to get divorced.
  4. 4 In terms of health the working class are more likely, more likely to smoke, to miscarry their baby, to die of an accident at work and to die before their first birthday.
  5. 5 In education the working class are more likely to be placed in lower streams or sets at school, to leave school with fewer educational qualifications, and much less likely than the middle class to go to university.

Key UK trends - ethnicity

  1. 1 African Caribbean Britons are at high risk of being stopped and searched, getting longer custodial sentences, being excluded from school, being unemployed, living in a single parent family and achieving the lowest average GCSE scores.
  2. 2 British Bangladeshis and Pakistanis have the highest rates of poverty, living in cramped housing and female unemployment.
  3. 3 British Indians and British Chinese have higher than average educational success rates.
  4. 4 White Britons have better life chances than ethnic minorities in nearly all areas, with the exception of the British Indians and British Chinese.
  5. 5 There are significant differences WITHIN ethnic groups, so men and women, people from different social classes and ages have significantly different life chances.

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    Until then, many girls had dropped science subjects (especially physics and chemistry) as soon as they were able to. Girls now have to study science until the age of 16; however this problem has not yet been solved as a few girls tend to study science subjects in college and university. The national curriculum also made it possible for boys to learn subjects from which they had until then been excluded. There are many factors inside of school that can affect the differential progress of boys and girls. The ways in which mixed schools are organised can reinforce to pupils the importance and significance of gender roles.

    • Word count: 944
  2. Religion in Society

    2) Problems with defining religion in modern society? There are two main ways in which religion is defined in modern society. Substantive definitions define a religious belief system as involving relations between the "natural" and the "supernatural" ideas therefore religion is defined in terms of structure and content of people's beliefs not what religion does for them. The other way is functional definitions this defines religion in terms of the function it performs for society. This is what Marx called "the opium of the masses" and a form of social cement, this means tv or football matches could be considered religious etc.

    • Word count: 503
  3. Examine the Reasons for Differences in Educational Achievement between Different Ethnic Groups

    Sociologists such as Sue Sharpe and Weiner, Arnot and David look at the reasons for the female's success. Whereas sociologists, like Paul Willis and Mitsos and Browne suggest reasons for male underachievement. Sue Sharpe's study discovered that in the 1970's girls had low expectations and were more likely to become a housewife and mother. They only saw jobs as a means of getting money before they married. When she when she revisited girls in the 1990's, they had higher expectation and saw jobs as careers. Weiner, Arnot and David are cynical about the underachievement of boys. They feel that the concern about the boy's underachievement is a reaction against the progress of women.

    • Word count: 705
  4. Assess the Cultural Explanations for Working Class Performance in the Educational System

    The Marxist theory is called cultural capita theory. It does not assume that the culture of higher social class is superior to the working class. Bourdieu, a Marxist, argues that working class failure is the fault of the education system and not of their culture or family. He feels that the education system is based towards the middle class culture and it devalues the knowledge and skills of the working class students. J.W.B.Douglas (1964) did a longitudinal study of 5,362 children who were born in the first week of March in 1946, and came to the outcome that the key factor in children's success in education is parental interest.

    • Word count: 929
  5. Examine the factors that influence a sociologist choice of research method

    In a qualitative method they are more prone to ask questions asking, 'why?' or 'how?' compared to a quantitative data which would more likely ask more straight forward questions like, 'what?' or 'where'. In qualitative methods the research usually focuses on small samples instead of in the case of quantitative research whereas focus lacks and the methods usually inhabits a larger, random samples. Unlike a quantitative method where the research depends restrictedly on the investigation of arithmetical or quantifiable statistics, data from qualitative research comes in many medium e.g.

    • Word count: 750
  6. Free essay

    Differential Achievement

    This can also be seen as an emotional barrier that deprives you from achieving well. For example, a child who has been brought up by a divorcee e.g. single mother, single father, would have a greater likelihood of suffering from depression, life of crime, neglect or even poverty/homelessness in comparison to one who was brought up in a happy home that did not undergo a loss of a parent through divorce or even bereavement. Social background e.g. ethnic group has also become a form of segregating from people in society that are likely to succeed and from people who will under achieve.

    • Word count: 933
  7. Discussing race and ethnicity.

    Ethnic groups such as Aborigines, Pacific Islanders and Chinese all come from their own unique cultural backgrounds. Due to this people from these said groups will all have their own values, morals and beliefs in regards to all areas of life. Pacifica students, for example, value family over educational outcomes. Emphasis in western cultures is different to this in that a higher value is given to education and the outcomes that people from those groups achieve. This family pressure on ethnic people would be a significant disadvantage in that it would be more important for them to attend a family birthday party rather then remain home and study.

    • Word count: 546
  8. Lancashire police force has put in force a race equality scheme that they are doing at the moment. Lancashire police forces scheme is to spread equality throughout Lancashire and make Lancashire a complete equal society.

    person from an Asian culture in the police would be able to control an Asian member of the public easier than a White officer, so now if a problem occurs they will have the right person for the job. So the police believed if they recruited more ethnic minorities they would find there job easier and would be liked more within the community. The police also have used other methods like letting in ethnic minorities ahead of more majority groups.

    • Word count: 745
  9. How it works Dewey decimal system

    and form of an item rather than drawing upon a list containing each class and its meaning. Except for general works and fiction, works are classified principally by subject, with extensions for subject relationships, place, time or type of material, producing classification

    • Word count: 349
  10. Observations at Roosevelt Middle School, which is in River Forest

    However, the whispering did stop when the students had to get started on the assignment. I have also observed that there seems to be a strong set of rules in place in Mrs. Braun's classroom. This is evident through some of Mrs. Braun's subtle, and not-so-subtle, reminders. For example, she gently made an example of a student by pointing out that his decorated pen (with a silly topper on it) was not allowed in class if it was going to be played and not used.

    • Word count: 789
  11. Large Lecture Classes Having left the confronting atmosphere of home schooling or typically small high school classes,

    Because of the large student body count, professors do not spend enough time explaining the material. When I can't take notes, I can't understand nor retain the subject. Note taking is a crucial aspect of a student's development learning curve. Class notes can serve as an important tool for reviewing for exams and distilling key concepts. As for me, it is very complicated to comprehend the material when the professor goes too quickly to obtain notes. This in turn, prevents me to understand the material properly. Furthermore, large lecture classes lead to impersonal, distant relationship between students and professors.

    • Word count: 889
  12. In my class if you were not being good, there would be different consequences. For example,

    My first few years were pretty much up to par with the status quo of behavioural and educational standards. I would do all my homework and be a good little boy in class. It wasn't till I reached junior high that I started rebelling a little. In my seventh grade class I felt as if I were ready to be treated as an equal adult. What I mean by this is, I didn't want to be told what to do. With this attitude in my head I only ran into trouble left and right.

    • Word count: 519
  13. Raelians. The Raelian tradition is unique among UFO groups in that it offers a creation story that ties it to the sacred books of the monotheistic tradition. The core idea is that the ancient Hebrew concept Elohim should have been translated as those w

    The Elohim gave him the name Rael and also assigned him the responsibility of telling the news of the return of the Elohim. * The Raelian religion claims that there are 40,000 members, representing 80 different countries * The Raelians are based in Montreal but with 40,000 members in 80 different countries it operates in these other

    • Word count: 376
  14. To what extent does voting by ethnic minorities reflect the voting behaviour of the whole electorate?

    This could be to do with the fact that one of the conservative policies in 2001 election was immigration, which led to a stronger party identification between ethnic minorities and the labour party. However although ethnic minorities tend to have a strong partisan alignment with labour they have a low voter turnout. However in the 2001 election Britain saw the lowest voter turnout since 1918 with only 57% of the electorate turning out to vote. So you could argue that by not turning out to vote they reflected the voting behaviour of most of the electorate who felt that in the 2001 election labour was 'bound to win'.

    • Word count: 878
  15. Critically discuss the reasons for the relative underachievement of ethnic minority pupils in Britain

    The conservative government in the 1990s allocated more money to the poorer areas and introduced 'Educational action zones' by the Labour government. The education system is mostly controlled by white middle-class people. Those who share these characteristics may well be viewed more positively and be more likely to succeed in the best and exams created to assess their abilities. The 11+ was criticised for middle-class bias as questions, such as being able to unscramble an anagram to form the word 'Mozart.'

    • Word count: 916
  16. Is attending an all girls school is beneficial to the girls?

    I chose a girls school because I feel as a boarder that it is more understanding of girls problems that they may face in adolescence. The school will have always dealt with teenage girls and therefore be more knowledgeable in the pastoral care aspect of school life. As many mixed schools have begun letting girls into the schools relatively recently and as a result may lack the ability to care for girls with the same degree of success. I researched this topic.

    • Word count: 702
  17. Examine the ways in which schools benefit Middle class students more than working class students

    This may well disadvantage working class, whilst benefiting the middle class student at school. If the middle class student is labelled as 'bright', others will respond to them and interpret their actions in terms of this label. There is a tendency for a self-fulfilling prophecy to result where the labelled, middle class pupils will act in terms of the label and see themselves as bright. Therefore that child will do better than a working class student who may not have been labelled as 'bright' even though he/she may be just as clever. Schools may benefit middle class students more than working class students due to material deprivation.

    • Word count: 599
  18. Sociology essay-education

    Low income families can not afford nurseries and private schools and they can't afford to support their children through university. As well as this poverty and unsatisfactory standards may cause health problems and absence from school. Lack of access to school uniform can lead to bulling as children "don't fit in", so worrying class pupils are at a disadvantage. As I have stated before, on the other hand there is evidence to show that cultural factors do determine differential class attainment as well.

    • Word count: 816
  19. How does the filmmaker of 'Bend it like Beckham' present issues of culture and gender?

    Indian music is played throughout the film. Giving the feeling that Jess lives within a family with strong Indian beliefs. It is plain from the beginning and throughout the film Jess and her sister have different ideas how young women should behave, compared to her parent who have strong Indian beliefs. This is often causes conflict in the form of arguments, an example of this is when Jesses mother does not want her play football she wants her to behave like a real Indian lady.

    • Word count: 779
  20. Examine the reasons for differences in educational achievement between different ethnic groups

    It is evident that Afro-Caribbean pupils do not achieve as well as other ethnic groups as in comparison at degree level, they are at the very bottom, with Chinese at the top and Asian in the middle. I have identified one of the main reasons for under achievement to be due to 'Teacher racism and labelling'. It has observed that often Afro-Caribbean boys have the label 'unruly' and 'disrespectful' applied to them as Gillborn (1990) found that teachers interpreted their manner to be a challenge of their authority.

    • Word count: 932
  21. To what extent did comprehensive schools enable working class pupils to succeed?

    environment, and thus can be identified early on in life Because the 11+ test favoured middle class, it was mostly middle class students that went to grammar schools. This created a social class division when one of the reasons for having Free State education was more 'equal' opportunities. When comprehensive schools were introduced in 1965, it was designed to overcome the unfairness of the tripartite system by abolishing the 11+ exam and sending all pupils to the same type of secondary school (with the exception of private school students who continued to go to private schools).

    • Word count: 820
  22. Ethnic Identity Homework

    Slowly the Jewish phase of Brick Lane came to an end and people had started accepting them around London. Nowadays Brick Lane is full of West Indians who have conformed to fight and protect each other against racist taunts and physical attacks on them. Brick Lane is renowned for its Ethnic minority groups through they different years and has become a safe retreat for many different ethnic minority groups. (All above information about Brick Lane, East End is in a book I am reading at the moment called East End Gangland) . 2. Many people say that Pakistani and Bangladeshi people do badly in the UK in things like education, money they get paid, jobs, housing etc.

    • Word count: 765
  23. Examine sociological explanations of difference in the educational performance of ethnic minorities in Britain.

    Ballad noticed lots of differences between these families compared to the white majority. In 1981 Ballard and Driver noticed that at the age of sixteen Asian children whose main home language was not English were at least as competent in English as there fellow classmates. Statistics prove that in England and Wales since 1988 ethnic groups are improving at least twenty percent. Indian children are over taking white children and Black (Children of Afro Caribbean and black African origin) are the most unimproved minority. What those statistics didn't tell us is that in early year education Pakistani and Bangladeshi children's attainment was very low, this mirrors the problem with the language barrier.

    • Word count: 885
  24. Why did Weston-Super-Mare continue to grow as a seaside resort between 1870-1900 while Portishead did not?

    With the docks, a pier was built for paddle steamers to dock at and also a railway which joined to Bristol. The local railway link meant that it took a longer time than expected to reach the destination than the Great Western Rail link that Weston had which was built in 1841. This was because the GWR would take a visitor right into Weston, but a visitor would have to change trains in Bristol to get to Portishead. This extra train journey resulted in a higher price of which working class citizens would struggle to pay.

    • Word count: 660
  25. What it Means to be Canadian.

    One thing we Canadians have in common is that we experience severe weather conditions. Which make us stronger and more persistent to overcome obstacles in our path. Our multicultural society is based on the love we have for others and for our surroundings. We respect nature and all it has to give as. Even though we know whole-heartedly that Mother Nature is forecast another surprise for us. Never knowing what to expect, we have come to realise that this is her way of showing us that we will never control the world.

    • Word count: 749

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