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AS and A Level: Sociological Differentiation & Stratification

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UK trends - gender

  1. 1 Men tend to outperform women in terms of income, wealth, promotion at work; they are more likely to have full time and /or permanent contracts.
  2. 2 In the home men do less housework than women and are much less likely to suffer domestic violence than women. Men are more likely to have control of finances and power in decision making in the family.
  3. 3 Women have better life chances in terms of life expectancy, preferential treatment by courts when awarding custody of children, some evidence of greater leniency in sentencing, more time off paid work with their children, lower suicide rates and are doing better in schools.

Key UK trends - social class

  1. 1 At work, those in the working class are more likely to have a below average paid job, a temporary contract and work part time.
  2. 2 In terms of policing and the criminal justice system, the working class are more likely to be stopped and searched by the police and to be arrested.
  3. 3 In the family people from working class backgrounds are more likely to marry younger and to get divorced.
  4. 4 In terms of health the working class are more likely, more likely to smoke, to miscarry their baby, to die of an accident at work and to die before their first birthday.
  5. 5 In education the working class are more likely to be placed in lower streams or sets at school, to leave school with fewer educational qualifications, and much less likely than the middle class to go to university.

Key UK trends - ethnicity

  1. 1 African Caribbean Britons are at high risk of being stopped and searched, getting longer custodial sentences, being excluded from school, being unemployed, living in a single parent family and achieving the lowest average GCSE scores.
  2. 2 British Bangladeshis and Pakistanis have the highest rates of poverty, living in cramped housing and female unemployment.
  3. 3 British Indians and British Chinese have higher than average educational success rates.
  4. 4 White Britons have better life chances than ethnic minorities in nearly all areas, with the exception of the British Indians and British Chinese.
  5. 5 There are significant differences WITHIN ethnic groups, so men and women, people from different social classes and ages have significantly different life chances.

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  1. Outline and Assess Whether stratification is either inevitable or beneficial to individuals and society?

    In order to tempt people to undergo these lengthy trainings they offer financial rewards and high social status at the end of the training period. The New right perspective would argue with functionalists and say that social stratification is beneficial and fair, they would however dispute that it isn't inevitable. Peter Saunders argues that stratification is a good idea because unequal rewards motivate people to work hard; this is because if all the rewards were equal some people wouldn't pull their weight.

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  2. fabric of society

    If person is not following the values and the expectations of that society he then is disapproved and punished. (Box, S. 1981) In 1997 election Labour had a landslide victory, this was due to their commitment on reforming issues of law and order. The crime disorder act introduced in 1998 brought new measures to fight anti-social behaviour. New Labour policies on crime are rooted in the left realist paradigms. The left realist approach to crime and order is to have social control by prioritizing crimes in the land and dealing with deviants sympathetically. The government has to maintain social control towards those who are potential or actual rule breakers.

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  3. Assess The Extent To Which Marxist & Feminist Theories Help Our Understanding Of Religion In Society Today

    Marx said that, "religion acts as an opiate to dull the pain produced by the oppressed." To maintain societies class, religion does nothing to solve the problems of the imbalance and oppression, instead it tries to make life more bearable. Lenin stated that religion is a, "spiritual gin", for the oppressed, allowing the proletariat feel better about their situation. This then is done in a variety of ways. Firstly for the oppressed, religion can promise paradise and an eternal bliss in life after death. Engels says that religion appeals to the subject class as it, "promises salvation from bondage and mister in the afterlife", thus the idea of Heaven just makes life more bearable for them.

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  4. Critically examine the relationship between gender, religious participation and religious organisations

    This evidence suggests that women are subservient within religion as a result of patriarchy. Women continue to be excluded from religious roles, despite evidence suggesting that the majority of church attenders are predominantly female. Likewise, Anderson and Gordon's study (1979) showed that witch-hunting reflected the low status of women. Witches were seen as being feminine, evil and anti-christ. "The view of women as an instrument of the devil, a thing at once inferior and evil, took shape in the earliest period of church history and was indeed originated by the church." Many witches in the 17th Century were tortured and burnt as they were seen as a threat to the newly emerging sciences that were dominated by men.

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  5. Modern Britain is now a secular society

    Therefore it is important to measure religious activity in past and present society. Secondly, there must be indicators by which we can measure religious activity. These indicators are religious practice, religious organisation and religious thought. However, it is not always straightforward when measuring religious activity. Firstly, we have limited knowledge of religious activity in the past and have few accurate records of religious participation, attendance and membership. Therefore we cannot suggest whether people attended church voluntarily, how important religion was to individuals, or what "religion" actually meant to be people. Secondly, we cannot assume that religious participation necessarily indicates strong religious beliefs.

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  6. Poverty and Discrimination

    Sexual discrimination is therefore defined as; ''discrimination (usually in employment) that excludes one sex to the benefit of the other sex.'' (www.thefreedictionary.com) This has been supported by the feminist movement, advocating equal opportunities for women and highlighting the patriarchal nature of British life. (Moore, 2002) Another major group vulnerable to prejudice and discrimination are the disabled or impaired. The Disability Discrimination Act uses the medical model to define disability as; ''a physical or mental impairment that has a substantial and long term adverse affect on persons ability to carry out normal day-today activities'' (Cited by www.btplc.com)

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  7. A Critical Analysis of "Do Husbands contribute more to domestic tasks when their wives are working?"

    Specific references to the new man in the 1980's and how it did not last, displaying the stereotypical roles of male's and female's to be true. Methodological Approach and Methods Used The methodical approach used by S. Bond is the Positivist approach as they have used Quantitative data to collect its results. A questionnaire was used allowing the researcher to assemble the statistics that can then be easily quantified. This is possibly the easiest form of gathering information to answer specific questions and giving clear answers. The researcher has established their conclusions by using this source and produced primary data.

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  8. Young peoples decision making is influenced by a number of social factors. Identify three major influences and discuss their impact.Family, Society and Education

    Family Family is defined as a universal social group, which live within the same household. Today families are identified as the main source for the growth of a young child, Without a family the child would merely be able to grow into a well brought up child In society. The family constructs of a mother and a father, perhaps a sibling also. However in some communities the case of a family is split in two, the father is mainly The main culprit for the split and the mother becomes the main influence over the Child.

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  9. Our Hands

    Family sex structuring is the planning with intentions directed toward the preference of one sex over another. This preference is only one theory involved in the reasoning of the article "Emerging Parental Gender Indifference? Sex Composition of Children and the Third Birth" by Michael S. Pollard and S. Philip Morgan. The original in depth idea of the article is that a family consisting of two parents and two existing children, each of the same sex, will statistically be more likely to add a third child in the hope of having a child of the opposite sex than the preexisting two.

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  10. To what extent does the New Deal help Ethnic Women to reduce their poverty?

    New Labour claim their welfare reform policies such as the New Deal has transformed the welfare system from providing passive support to active support, giving independence to people in search of work. With the purpose of creating an inclusive society where nobody is held back by disadvantage or through lack of opportunity. (www.labour.org.uk.) The New Deal has a variety of packages to suit a diversity of needs: * Young People (18-24) * 25 Plus * 50 plus * Disabled People * Lone- Parents * Partners * Self-Employment * Musicians New Deal applicants are given a personal advisor who will

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  11. Following the publication of the Macpherson Report, the police service has been accused of being 'institutionally racist'. Has this accusation been a help or a hindrance to police relations with minority ethnic communities?

    Racism was not actually registered in the eyes of the government and police as a crime until the early 1980's. But as a result of the rising public outcries and the increasing statistical and research evidence suggesting unfair racist practices occurring within the police, the government and policing bodies had to at least acknowledge the existence of racism as a problem in society. The Bradford riots in 1995, and other public outcries showed the growing animosity that was being felt toward the police by minority ethnic communities.

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  12. Critically Examine The Explanations Offered For The Fact That Working Class Students Are Relative Failures In The Education System

    They believe the term 'intelligence' means the ability to 'reason, comprehend and make judgements'. They argue that the link between the level of intelligence of parents and children is strong, but also do not deny that the correspondence is not complete. They acknowledge that there exists a minority of less intelligent middle class children and more intelligent working class children. The hereditarian view is based upon the functionalist perspective that intelligence, academic attainment and occupational status correlate with one another.

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  13. Outline and account for the disadvantages experienced by minority ethnic groups in British society.

    All have shown that when matters such as language competence, skill levels and qualifications are controlled for, there remains a residue which is not explained by such factors. As a result, it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that discrimination on the part of employers plays a significant part in the labour market placement of minority ethnic groups. Discussion of racial inequality has often become caught up in debates. Disputes also relate to what terms should be used to describe various ethnic groups.

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  14. In what ways is 'race' socially and spatially constructed?

    The indigenous people of their colonies were seen as pagan, animalistic, uncivilised and almost un-evolved human beings. Europeans classified peoples in their colonies into a hierarchy of categories which placed Europeans at the top of a pseudo-evolutionary scale. The stereotypes created are still evident in today's society (Rebecca Riehm Homepage: [2]http://www.gossamer-wings.com/soc/Notes/race/tsld002.html) 11/03/04. The European settlers believed in their superiority of their civilisation sustained by Christianity, technological advances and the capacity to conquer foreign lands. The Europeans also believed that the product of the indigenous cultures was inherent to them; some groups were able to advance in civilisation while others seemed incapable of any advances.

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  15. "To what extent does voting by ethnic minorities reflect the voting behaviour of the whole electorate?"

    This note sets out the latest figures for the Government and elected bodies. Table 1 summarises the current position: Table 1 - summary of minority ethnic group representation % from minority ethnic group Cabinet 9.5% Other Government ministers & whips 3.4% House of Commons 1.8% House of Lords c.4% MEPs 4.6% Local councillors (England & Wales) 2.5% Public Bodies 4.4% Scottish Parliament & Welsh Assembly Nil Greater London Assembly 4.0% In 1997, the former president of the UK, John Major was overthrown by the new candidate Tony Blair.

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  16. Did the development of capitalism alter women's work opportunities in Europe 1780-1900?

    The first point to make is that women's opportunities did change, the extent of this change may be debated but it is important not to deny the existence of this transformation. Another important factor to note is that industrialisation was an extremely complex process which occurred at different times and to varying degrees of intensity in all the different countries of Europe. Anyway as it is argued by historians such as Le Pay, the change that did occur was that many women got jobs in factories and who is to say that this was an 'opportunity'.

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  17. Media and Gender Stereotyping

    2 INTRODUCTION Advertisements have appeared in print media since the invention of the printing press in the 1500s. The usage of the term magazine itself first came about with the publication of 'The Gentlemen's Magazine' and 'The Lady's Magazine' in the 1730s by Edward Cave (1691-1754) (Connor, G 2001). Different types of magazines exist for just about every age and social group, for any interest, hobby and lifestyle. Advertisers make use of information gathered by agencies like ABC (Audit Bureau of Circulation)

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  18. For this assignment I am going to cover 86 years of change in St. Michaels Ward, Sunderland.

    There is also a timber yard. There are already some houses in the area; for example, Mary Street and Houghton Street were homes for the working class. People who lived in these houses could work in farming, building, coal, shipbuilding or glassworks. There were two main roads that crossed the rural area. One of which was called Durham Road. The Hetton Company's railway carried coal from Hetton Company's field to the saithes on the River Wear to be loaded onto the colliers.

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  19. What are the advantages and problems for South Asians in Britain adopting a 'black' identity? Give reasons for your answer

    This article aims to explore the issues facing British South Asians, in particular since the Gulf Wars and Salman Rushdie affair of the 1990s, which resulted in media hype about the presence of ethnic minorities. After a brief description of recent political challenges to Asian communities, the stereotypes which have developed in relation to gender roles are considered, in addition to an exploration of the contested and reconstructed identities of second generation British Asians. Identity Identity is never static, but constantly evolving in relation to local, national and global influences.

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  20. A Mental Revolution Re-Entering the African Diaspora.

    The Diaspora originated from historical and cultural experiences of the Jewish and Greek people, which mean dispersal, the African Diaspora is the forced removal of Africans from Africa, which led to enslavement. According to (Harris 2001), "the importance of the historical Diaspora was that Africans like other people have traveled abroad as free people, settled down and made important contributions to many Europeans and Asian countries." The Historical Diaspora was mainly the dispersion of Africans in the world and their settlements. They maintained a consciousness of Africa and their Identity while adapting and making positive contributions to their adopted homelands.

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  21. Risk Factors for Recent Increased Drug Use in Adolescents.

    In recent years teen drug use has increased due to multiple variables. Methodology: I am a student at Fairport Senior High School writing a thesis paper for a SUPA Sociology class. I have used secondary analysis and synthesis to support a thesis. The secondary analysis was of nine professional journal articles written about increased drug use factors. I read, highlighted and annotated each article and pulled information from each to support my thesis. Environmental Variables: Peer Influence If problems in formation of a personal identity persist, drug use may become their escape.

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  22. 'Differences in gender, class and ethnicity are no longer relevant factors in determining work experiences and outcomes'. Discuss.

    For example, in 19th century America, blacks and women were denied their right to citizenship, most noticeably by the denial of their right to suffrage. The use of gender to 'control' women in general and especially in employment is central to the feminist debate, which will be discussed later. According to Macionis and Plummer (1998), 'ethnicity is a shared cultural heritage.' Members of an ethnic category have common ancestors, a religion or language that, together, confers a distinctive social identity.

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  23. 16th Century rebellions of the Netherlands.

    A quick and positive reply could perhaps have stemmed the tide of revolt among the Confederates and the ordinary rebels, but his response 4 months later granting only a few minor concessions was rendered useless by the surge in rebel activity during that time. Without the important long-term causes that weakened relations between Philip and the grandees, the first trigger would never have occurred. The grandees would not have felt enough hostility towards Philip to challenge him on the heresy laws had the relationship between the two not seriously broken down.

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  24. To what extent is the position of ethnic minorities explained by theories of the underclass?

    The definition is slightly different from the one given to 'race', which is more rooted from biological aspect. For ethnic minorities here, it usually refers to culture dimension rather than physical one: language, religion, or nationality; nevertheless, it is seen as contains more culture factors, and this is perhaps the most crucial issue. People from one culture background is being seen in others' eyes as ethnicity. However, in comparison, not all 'ethnic' or 'minority' groups are perceived as 'ethnic minorities' 1 For instance: White European immigrates. So, which groups are ethnic minorities we are considering at the moment?

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  25. The History of Ethnicity and Educational Attainment

    they could work only in jobs such as bus drivers and underground attendants; only the lower status (IV class) non-skilled, manual jobs. Again, in the 1970's, the Consumer revolution leads to the introduction of new food and fashion types and the South African immigration, the UK accepted all the Indian, Pakistani and Ugandan immigrants as cheap labour forces, for as long as the economic boom continues. But in the 1980's an economic recession began meaning that unemployment increases due to the lack of goods being sold abroad.

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