• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Sociology Exam Study Guide

Extracts from this document...


´╗┐Second Exam Sociology 131 Fall Semester How is studying bureaucracy as an ideal type useful? Studying bureaucracy as an ideal type is useful when attempting to understand how an organization works sort of like ?what makes the world go round?. Max Weber defined bureaucracy as a completely rational organization; one that uses the most efficient means to achieve a valued goal. It has seven major characteristics that allow it to coordinate people so that their actions focus on achieving the organizations goals. There are two dimensions of organizations referred to as formal and informal dimensions. The author defines the formal dimension as the official aspect of an organization that consists of job descriptions and written rules, guidelines, and procedures established to achieve valued goals. The informal dimension is defined as the unofficial aspect of an organization, including behaviors that depart from the formal dimension; an example would be an employee ignoring the official rules and guidelines established by the formal organization. The dominance of formal organizations coincide with rationalization; rationalization is defined as a process in which thought and action rooted in emotion, superstitions or tradition is replaced by thought and action grounded in logical assessment. Rationalization can be found in many formal organizations today. What is alienation as described by Karl Marx? Karl Marx describes alienation as a state of being in which human life is dominated by the forces of its inventions. ...read more.


An example is the relationship that the United States has with China. All most all the materials that the U.S need come from China; the division of labor is needed so that resources can be gathered and shared amongst the countries that may not produce the materials needed. What are the agents of socialization? What is Socialization? Socialization plays a major part in each person?s life. It determines how we act, think and what type of person an individual will become. The book defines socialization as the process by which people develop a sense of self and learn the ways of the society in which they live in. There are two agents that hold importance in socialization which are; nature and nurture. Nature is one?s human genetic makeup or biological inheritance. Nurture refers to the social environment or the interaction experiences that make up every individual?s life. Socialization has played and still plays a big part in my life. I can remember spending part of my early childhood days up until I was ten years old, living in an area where the people were at or below poverty level and the majority of them were African American or Hispanic. Although that is what my parents and I were born in to that is not where our minds stayed. My parents socialized with people who wanted more out of life and wanted to achieve greatness. ...read more.


What information would you include in a presentation on HIV/AIDS? If I were given the opportunity to give a presentation on HIV/AIDS I would first explain how the virus derived. I would explain to them that the virus is not hereditary but it is developed after contact with an individual who carries the virus or \it can be passed on from mother to baby during birth. HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus which attacks your cells and weakens your immune system causing the virus to eventually turn into AIDS if not treated regularly. AIDS stands for Acquired immunodeficiency Syndrome. AIDS is very deadly and can eventually lead to death if not properly treated. Having HIV/AIDS does not mean that this is the end of your life it just means that you have to adapt to a new way of living. How does Durkheim define suicide? Durkheim defined suicide as the act of severing relationships. To make his case he argued that every group has greater or lesser propensity for suicide. There are four types of suicide; #1 being Egoistic which is suicide resulting from weak social ties that fail to attach the person to the group and #2 Altruistic which results from social ties so strong that the self has no life from the group. #3 Atomic results from social ties disrupted by dramatic change in economic circumstances.#4 Fatalistic resulting from social ties whose disiplin is so oppressive it offers no chance of release. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Sociological Differentiation & Stratification essays

  1. Demography topic revision notes. The study of populations and their characteristics is called ...

    It rose slightly during the 1930s and 1940s - the period of the great economic depression, followed by World War II - but since the 1950s it has declined slightly. Reasons for the decline in the death rate There are several reasons why the death rate declined during the 20th century.

  2. Emile Durkheim - suicide

    He was not depending on changeable human motives on his study. In durkheim's suicide, there were some limitations, moral orientation and self-interest was neglected. In his study, suicide is a result of moral disorder and individuals have simple contacts only.

  1. My sociology coursework is about the segregated conjugal roles between men and women in ...

    7 am - 1 pm ( 6 hrs) HOUSEWORK: Mother Cooking Cleaning Cooking Washing Dishes Cooking Tidying the house Washing Clothes Ironing Clothes Washing the dishes Cleaning windows Washing Clothes Food and Grocery shopping Hoovering Drying Clothes Father D.I.Y Clean the car Ironing Washing Dishes Hoovering LEISURE TIME: Mother Reading Phoning friends Gym Watching TV Watching TV Reading

  2. sociological imagination

    Thatcher may be right in the sense that society is a generalised idea and that there is no such thing as society, only individuals and sociologically, society may be seen to be related to individuals but more precisely it is to do with "referring to a system of interaction."

  1. Should African Americans Receive Reparations Because of Slavery?

    I believe that blacks should receive reparations for slavery, but not in the form of cash settlements. There are several options for how the government should pay the African Americans for their role in building the United States and all of their burdens in the process.


    Where are they to go? (NST 1/1/1988) Another issue on which the emergence of a middle class clearly has a bearing is that of fertility and rates of population growth. Not yet a concern in Malaysia to the extent that it is in Singapore, where falling birth and marriage rates among the middle classes have

  1. Identify and briefly describe the discriminatory practices for each case study

    able to function as efficiently as they did in their daily routines . This means that they wont perform to their best abilities no matter where they work or what or what they do and this also means that it will be very hard for them to get back to

  2. Assess the claim that voters are rational consumers

    Furthermore, in recent years there has been an increase in tactical voting. In 1997 and 2001, middle class voters used this political knowledge in constituencies where Labour was weak by tactically voting for the Liberal Democrats in order to prevent the Conservatives winning seats.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work