• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Application Of Forensic Science In the Detection of Crime

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Application Of Forensic Science In the Detection of Crime Crime is rapidly increasing in this day and age, however, thanks to the increasing technology we can now detect and prevent crime, using forensic techniques. Dr Edmund Locard, one of the founding fathers of forensic science stated that "every contact leaves a trace", this statement became commonly known as 'Locards Exchange principal'. The statement in a broader sense means: every time an individual comes in contact with a place or another individual, something of that individual is left behind at the place, and something of that place is taken away with the individual. For example, if someone gives you a big hug and walks away, fibres from their clothes will be transferred on to your clothes and vice versa. There are 2 types of forensic evidence that may be left at a crime scene, namely: * Biological (DNA) * Non - biological Biological evidence is evidence, which helps confirm the identity of the suspect, these are as follows: * Blood * Semen * Saliva * Urine * Vomit * Hair DNA DNA is a big step for science. A persons DNA (de-oxyribonucleic acid) can be found from a single strand of hair, skin under a murder victims nails or body fluids such as sweat, saliva, semen and blood. The chances of a sample of DNA being the same as another person, other than monozygotic twins is 1 in 24 million. This is why recent cases such as that of Sarah Payne rely so much on DNA samples found at the crime scene. ...read more.

Middle

Finger marks The discovery that no two people - not even identical twins - have the same fingerprints was one of the most important discoveries in the history of forensic science. For latent prints, the biggest problem is to make them visible. However, if left untouched, they are virtually permanent - latent prints have been found in ancient Egyptian tombs! * Dusting. Dusting is ideal on non-porous surfaces. Powder is dusted lightly over the surface on which a print has been left, and sticks to the oil and sweat and so brings out the pattern. Once you locate a print, the powder is very gently brushed off. The powdered print can then be photographed or lifted - adhesive material, such as Sellotape, is applied to remove the powdered print from the surface. * Iodine fuming. This works well on porous surfaces such as paper. The material is exposed to iodine vapour, which reacts with the sebum to produce yellow-brown prints. * The ninhydrin spray. This is a particularly useful method for all kinds of surfaces, including books and wallpaper, and is designed to develop prints that may be very old (30 years plus). * Silver nitrate. This picks up salt in sweat. This can be sprayed onto a surface, such as wood or cardboard, or it can be applied with a brush or swab. * Superglue fuming. Superglue vapour reacts with water in the print. A few drops of superglue are placed on a hotplate in a glass tank. ...read more.

Conclusion

The tyre track is compared with that of known tyres or the suspect's vehicle. A few methods are available to record tyre test impressions that accurately capture the tread pattern, design, individual characteristics and wear characteristics. These involve inking or greasing the tyre and rolling onto brown or white paper or board, or developing the impression using black magnetic fingerprint powder. * In a case that went to trial in Canada in 1948, two brothers, Donald and William Kett, were accused in a series of breaking and entering offences. After Donald was convicted, William claimed he was innocent and that the shoes that were matched back to the crime scenes belonged to his brother. However, the shoes were cut open and the marks inside compared to the feet of the two brothers. Based on this comparison, it was determined that William had worn the shoes and he was also convicted. The future of criminal evidence will be an exciting one to watch. With the aid of the spectacular advances in science, evidence will continue to improve with the use of technology and provide more answers from physical evidence examinations to previously unresolved questions. As the technology changes, so, too will the quality of the profession. Laboratory accreditation, which began as a voluntary program, is now an essential criterion for an operational crime laboratory in the United Kingdom. 1 Also referred to as "A Family Story", in 'Indelible Evidence' 2 Also referred to as "Hate Campaign", in 'Indelible Evidence' 3 referred to as "Process Of Elimination", in 'Indelible Evidence' 4 Also referred to as "Gunrole", in 'Indelible Evidence" 5 Also referred to as "Windfall" in 'Indelible Evidence' 6 See Footnote 4 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Crime & Deviance section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Crime & Deviance essays

  1. Teenage Suicide in the United States - comparing suicide rates in Europe and East ...

    One very important issue is teenage suicide that affects both these areas though in different rates. Though, one specific fact that is common in Japan, China, and Hong Kong is that the teenage suicide rates are lower than those of America due to the striking contrast in cultures.

  2. Caderousse principal crime was to be an accomplice to Fernand and Danglars.

    minutes of agony and despair where not enough, I swear by the grave of my father that I would have tried to bring him back to life and repentance.(285)" MERCEDES Crime: Mercedes' crime was marrying Fernand Mondego instead of Edmond Dantes.

  1. Assess the right realist view that crime is the result of biological rational factors ...

    These left wing theorists also believe that it would be best for an informal social control in society which can be the likes of good job prospects for the future and building nice houses to reduce the relative depravation problem.

  2. Literature Review: The Impact of Heroin Prices on Robbery Trends

    in 1953, when heroin was criminalised, however there is inadequate data available on the link between the price of heroin and crime. Similarly, although Platzspitz in Switzerland, and the Netherlands28 have trialled heroin injection, heroin prescription and decriminalisation - this has not affected the cost of heroin available to the majority of heroin users.

  1. The purpose of crime scene investigation is to help establish what happened at the ...

    The trail is that area, which all noticeable actions connected with a crime, took place. It is also sometimes marked by the presence of physical evidence; this may include the point of entry, the location of the crime, areas where a suspect may have cleaned up and the point of exit.

  2. Criminal Investigation Procedures

    The NCIS will gather information on future attacks which will involve proving the suspect is guilty in order for the plan to be carried out, thus the NCIS rarely get involved in the investigations as they will only hand potential plans over to the police in order for them to investigate further.

  1. Offender Profiling Handout

    had observed that FBI behavioural scientists not only attempted to determine an offender's motivation, they also made direct correlations between behaviour and offender characteristics using population base rate information. Furthermore, having made an initial inference, profilers also went on to make secondary inferences, i.e.

  2. Who benefits from aid?

    Brandt, a globalisation theorist believes that aid should be used to generate trade. He argues that the north facilitates growth in the south and vice versa. This is because of trade relations between the two. Brandt argues that they have a win-win relationship.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work