• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The scientific revolution

Extracts from this document...


The various changes brought about by the scientific revolution provoked a reassessment of the civil society in Europe. One of the most influential concepts of the 17th and 18th century, the natural law theory was responsible for many of these changes. As both Lock and Hobes theorized the development of Natural Law, the idea of a '"'Social Contract'"' appeared in both works. This Social Contract would guaranty the population basic rights. In the event in which the people were no longer guaranty these rights, Lock argued that the people had then a right to revolte. The French '"'philosophes'"', constructing upon the Natural Law arguments, pushed even further to establish inalienable rights: the '"'Rights of Man'"'. In 1789, upon the beginning of the French Revolution, the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen established liberty, property, safety and resistance to oppression as fundamental rights, and declared that all men were born equal. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen spurred strong reactions from intellectuals in Europe. Among them, opposing the direct ideological consequences of the French Revolution, Edmund Burke argued that the Equality of Men concept attributed false rights to its citizens and provided vain expectations to its people. ...read more.


Indeed, Rousseau, along with DR Gregory, have participated and contributed to the subservience of women. As the works of these authors were widely read, they are true glimpses of the 18th century society. To show the geographical extend of the unjust condition of women, this example is one regarding the Islam religion, from the footnotes on page 19: '"'Islam did not allow women to go to heaven and denied them souls'"'. Women were treated unjustly by their male counterparts throughout the globe. This aspect of male authority over women greatly affected them, notably destroying proper maternal instincts, robbing them from the most sincere and enjoyable responsibility in a women"'"s life. The subjection of women to male authority under the marriage contract, led Wollstonecraft to question women"'"s maternity instinct! From their childhood, women were told that obedience and softness of temper were prerequisites to finding a husband (19). Despite changes in the civil society such as the emergence of natural rights, scientific principles and philosophical thoughts, marriage remained, for women, the required path to community acceptance. Therefore, women complied; marriage was for women the only solution to rise in the world (Wollstonecraft 10). ...read more.


Their only request to the King was to give them a chance to emerge from ignorance to be able to give their children a reasonable education and to make them better subjects of his majesty. Education, they argued, would also enlighten them on subjects such as patriotism, sensitivity and etiquette. The deplorable condition of women was cast upon them by men. Unfortunately, women had to addapt to live and therefore subjected themselves to degradations through the pursuit of beauty and innocence. However, as they engaged in this cycle, they became trapped in dependency and had no means to exit. Their only hope, education, was refused to them to perpetuate their dependency and subservience. The condition of women was definetly an international issue in the 18th century. Through A Vindication of the Rights of Women, Wollstonecraft cried for an awakening of women, possible only through education. Finally, this dominating quote from the essay seemed to fit Wollstonecraft"'"s goal: '"'Consequently, the perfection of our nature and capability of happiness, must be estimated by the degree of reason, virtue, and knowledge, that distinguish the individual, and direct the laws which bind society: and that from the exercise of reason, knowledge and virtue naturally flow, is equally undeniable, if mankind be viewed collectively'"' (Wollstonecraft 13). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Work & Leisure section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Work & Leisure essays

  1. Examining equality in Education.

    Teachers will also, on first introduction to the pupil, have a limited knowledge of the pupil but may, for instance, know the area in which the pupil lives. Based on this and a few other factors, including appearance and personality, the teacher may judge the pupil and label them as being a particular type.

  2. Match Girls Sources Questions

    Annie Besant was a socialist, who were seen by businesses such as Bryant and May as nuisance and their strike actions as 'stupidity'. The extract states that 'they also suffer...' this not only implies that they suffered in a different way, but is going on to other grievances and sufferings the Match Girls have endured.

  1. Comment on the strength and weakness of the social security system in Hong Kong

    As the crime rate is lowered, Hong Kong can become a more peaceful place to live. Furthermore, it helps to reduce the conflicts between the under-privileged and the poor under the capitalistic society. As CSSA can produce a redistribution effect, it helps narrow the income gap between the lower class and upper class.

  2. Find out what subjects girls study more in higher education as well as for ...

    See Appendix, Part 4: LFS reweighting. 3 Below degree level. Source: Department for Education and Skills from the Labour Force Survey Table 3.13 GCSE or equivalent entries and achievements:1 by selected subject and sex, 2002/03 United Kingdom Percentages Number of entries Percentage of entrants (thousands) achieving grade A*-C Males Females All Males Females All Mathematics 371

  1. Participant Observation Exercise

    This may be because he has participated in a conversation that criticises somebody's musical talent and that he doesn't hold too much confidence in his own talent and wants the conversation to change. He is perhaps scared that Dave will judge him in the same way.

  2. Comparing 19th and 20th Centaury Short Stories - Son's Veto and growing up.

    In the days when it was set, women were little more than the property of men, bought and sold like slaves. A woman would work patiently working for her father, whilst waiting for a suitor to come along whom he would approve of.

  1. What were the lives of people like in the 19th century cities?

    * Children under 21 not to work at night. * Applies to Cotton Mills only. 1833 Factory Act * Children 9-13 work maximum 9h/day * Children 13-16 work maximum 12h/day. * Children under 9 not to work. * Education to be given 2h/day. * No child under 18 allowed working at night.

  2. 1) Describe the employment opportunities of women in Britain in 1914?

    Apart from those three types of employees women worked in all professions before the War. Although women could become doctors and had the possibility to qualify for degrees in universities, there was a lot of resistance as to not accept women in this profession because of various factors, but most importantly because of the attitudes of men towards women.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work