• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The scientific revolution

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The various changes brought about by the scientific revolution provoked a reassessment of the civil society in Europe. One of the most influential concepts of the 17th and 18th century, the natural law theory was responsible for many of these changes. As both Lock and Hobes theorized the development of Natural Law, the idea of a '"'Social Contract'"' appeared in both works. This Social Contract would guaranty the population basic rights. In the event in which the people were no longer guaranty these rights, Lock argued that the people had then a right to revolte. The French '"'philosophes'"', constructing upon the Natural Law arguments, pushed even further to establish inalienable rights: the '"'Rights of Man'"'. In 1789, upon the beginning of the French Revolution, the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen established liberty, property, safety and resistance to oppression as fundamental rights, and declared that all men were born equal. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen spurred strong reactions from intellectuals in Europe. Among them, opposing the direct ideological consequences of the French Revolution, Edmund Burke argued that the Equality of Men concept attributed false rights to its citizens and provided vain expectations to its people. ...read more.

Middle

Indeed, Rousseau, along with DR Gregory, have participated and contributed to the subservience of women. As the works of these authors were widely read, they are true glimpses of the 18th century society. To show the geographical extend of the unjust condition of women, this example is one regarding the Islam religion, from the footnotes on page 19: '"'Islam did not allow women to go to heaven and denied them souls'"'. Women were treated unjustly by their male counterparts throughout the globe. This aspect of male authority over women greatly affected them, notably destroying proper maternal instincts, robbing them from the most sincere and enjoyable responsibility in a women"'"s life. The subjection of women to male authority under the marriage contract, led Wollstonecraft to question women"'"s maternity instinct! From their childhood, women were told that obedience and softness of temper were prerequisites to finding a husband (19). Despite changes in the civil society such as the emergence of natural rights, scientific principles and philosophical thoughts, marriage remained, for women, the required path to community acceptance. Therefore, women complied; marriage was for women the only solution to rise in the world (Wollstonecraft 10). ...read more.

Conclusion

Their only request to the King was to give them a chance to emerge from ignorance to be able to give their children a reasonable education and to make them better subjects of his majesty. Education, they argued, would also enlighten them on subjects such as patriotism, sensitivity and etiquette. The deplorable condition of women was cast upon them by men. Unfortunately, women had to addapt to live and therefore subjected themselves to degradations through the pursuit of beauty and innocence. However, as they engaged in this cycle, they became trapped in dependency and had no means to exit. Their only hope, education, was refused to them to perpetuate their dependency and subservience. The condition of women was definetly an international issue in the 18th century. Through A Vindication of the Rights of Women, Wollstonecraft cried for an awakening of women, possible only through education. Finally, this dominating quote from the essay seemed to fit Wollstonecraft"'"s goal: '"'Consequently, the perfection of our nature and capability of happiness, must be estimated by the degree of reason, virtue, and knowledge, that distinguish the individual, and direct the laws which bind society: and that from the exercise of reason, knowledge and virtue naturally flow, is equally undeniable, if mankind be viewed collectively'"' (Wollstonecraft 13). ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Work & Leisure section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Work & Leisure essays

  1. Comment on the strength and weakness of the social security system in Hong Kong

    Furthermore, it can reduce the inequality resulting extreme disparity between the rich and the poor. It is because the money given to the poor is from the tax revenue which mainly collected from the rich. Moreover, it benefit from social integration, arising from the sense of belonging the recipient may think that the government has cared about them.

  2. Participant Observation Exercise

    This may be because he has participated in a conversation that criticises somebody's musical talent and that he doesn't hold too much confidence in his own talent and wants the conversation to change. He is perhaps scared that Dave will judge him in the same way.

  1. Find out what subjects girls study more in higher education as well as for ...

    The proportion of young women who achieved this increased from 20 per cent in 1992/93 to 43 per cent in 2002/03 (Figure 3.14). For young men the proportion increased from 18 per cent to 34 per cent over the same period.

  2. 1) Describe the employment opportunities of women in Britain in 1914?

    Many women left Domestic service in large numbers for the more attractive pay and freedom procured by other professions or industries. Conditions in the work places were still very harsh and demanding, and were still paid lees then men. Most of the dangerous jobs were done by women, and they were rarely promoted over men.

  1. a) With reference to the Items and elsewhere, assess the view that the introduction ...

    This according to them is the fragmentation of most work is mirrored in the "breaking up of the curriculum" into subjects and topics. The lack of control over work for the individual is reflected in the powerlessness of pupils over what they learn and how.

  2. What were the lives of people like in the 19th century cities?

    We suffer when we are at home, because it is so little space! Buildings should be made higher or in suburbs, where land is cheaper. Areas a bit outside the city with transport to the work possible would be a perfect solution! Waste on the roads will not be tolerated!

  1. Comparing 19th and 20th Centaury Short Stories - Son's Veto and growing up.

    Religion isn't a major issue in Growing Up. There are a several references to Mrs. Quick being a member of the local parish and also the local welfare comities. These imply a religious community with Christian values. Later in the story, Mrs.

  2. Examining equality in Education.

    The Butler Act aimed to ensure all children received adequate education, regardless of gender or class and a 'tripartite system' was set up, so called because of its three stages of education. By the 1950's, it was widely accepted that the tripartite system had failed in its aims and what followed was the 1965 Comprehensive Debate.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work